SCIENCE IN MOTION
Using movement to help students understand the meaning of science terms
National Science Teachers Association
December 4, 2003
Paige L. Schulte
Dept. of Teaching & Learning
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) developed by Dr. James Asher (2):
A teaching technique whereby a learner responds to language input with body motions. Acting out a chant, or the game 'Robot' is an example of a TPR activity, where the teacher commands her robots to do some task in the classroom. Acting out stories and giving imperative commands are common TPR activities. TPR can be used in Science as a whole class where each individual performs the command, with partners, in groups, or as demonstrations in front of the class. Learning: Students should respond to the commands quickly, identify appropriate responses in others, and be able to explain why a particular movement represents a concept.
1 Earth skills: Point north-Point south-Point east-Point west-Place right arm in vertical position-Place left arm in horizontal position-Latitude-Longitude5
2 Show-meConcepts-Specific Landforms: anticline, syncline; Climates: desert; Processes: rotate, revolve, folding, faulting; Erosion: (wind, water, glacier, gravity )*
Example commands with partners back to back or hands together:
1 The above * can also be done with partners or groups. P. Schulte-December 4, 2003
2 Magnetic attraction-Magnetic repulsion-North side of a magnet to North side-North side to South
Example commands for groups: all * above can also be used for group commands as well as concepts listed on last page.
H.O.T. Extension-students must give justification for the motions they choose orally or in writing. Divide notebook: Motion Reason
SIMON SAYS-use like TPR commands
SIMULATION: One group can model the movement in front of the class while others assess with thumbs up or thumbs down, or groups simulate, while the others guess. Example: each student in the group is a molecule in motion, assign a lead molecule in each group, teacher indicates (verbally, picture, flashlight) whether heat source is being added or removed, movement of groups should simulate the correct phase change. Can also be done as a whole-class activity (3).
H.O.T. Writing: Divide notebooks: What? Yes/No-Why?
MOTION RESPONSE-students act out an answer to a question a teacher asks in front of class. The rest gives a thumbs up or thumbs down. Examples: Why does the Earth have seasons?
Why is it daytime in some areas of Earth but nighttime in others? Have them explain orally the rest of the class thumbs up thumbs down. Students take notes or add their own explanations during or after. Two sides of notebook: _____ Motion ______________________Explanation
CONCEPTUAL CHARADES: Each group receives a card with a different term science term on it and must devise a movement that represents the concept (Examples: see list attached). The rest of the class has to guess the term. Discuss the similarities/differences of the movement analogy and the term.
BODY MATCH REVIEW: can be used in any content area (Adapted from (4) ). Students are given cards with either a term or a verb related to concept, an analogy with response, problem and solutionů. Move around classroom to match their card with the correct verb or response. Once all matched, rest of the class assesses each with thumbs up or thumbs down. Examples: Can be used with any of the following: 1. identify body parts 2. identify the five senses 3. identify the body parts that pertain to the five senses. 4. identify organs 5. identify organ systems
1 -Nose smells -Skin feels -Ears hear
2 Can be more complex for older students. Ex. -Olfactory structures smell
-Integumentary system sweats -Mammary glands secrete milk.
H.O.T.writing extension: Write accurate sentences, scenarios, stories using the matched cards.
BODY PART CHALLENGE (5)use mat, newspaper, or piece of carpet, prepare in advance a list of movement challenges to verbally give to participants, can range from simple body terms for younger children to more complex terms for older students. You can also call out two body parts to be put on the carpet square at the same time. Try to challenge the problem-solving abilities of students. The following are sample instructions:
-Left foot -Left Patella)
-Right knee -Right Metatarsals
-Forehead -Left Metacarpals
-Nose -Top of cranium
-Right Hip -Sternum
-Right ear -Coccyx
-Chin and right knee and left hand -Vertebrae and Back of Cranium and Right Tarsals
-Top of head and right foot and both hands
P. Schulte-December 4, 2003
CONCEPT ATTAINMENT: students categorize ideas (yes/no, opposite ideas, cause/effect) to build a concept. ___________________ ____________________
The following types of activities which focus on meaning can help students acquire language:
1. content (subject matter, new information, reading)
2. affective-humanistic (students ideas, opinions, experiences)
3. games (focus on using language to participate in the game)
4. problem solving (focus on using language to locate information) (6; p. 5)
Kinesthetic Games (7)
FILL THE BOARD (Schulte, 2003): Teacher poses problem, sentence, conceptů Students line up. Each must add an idea related to topic until the board is filled. If cannot add an idea, adds an incorrect idea, or repeats an idea (or use incorrect spelling to enhance challenge) must sit down-or to make it competitive, the last two individuals or the team with the most remaining get a prize.
REVIEW RELAY: Set the students in two teams of partners in line, give first set of partners question card. They go to answer station. Discuss. Choose correct answer. Get next question
teacher. Bring back to next pair on team. Continue until both teams finish. Winner - team that finishes first and/or has most correct responses.
IDEAS TO KEEP IN MIND WHEN USING MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES (8: Schulte, 2003):
c1 Can be used at the beginning of class as an assessment of prior knowledge or as a grabber for the lesson that day, as an activity that reinforces vocabulary or as a formative check, or as a review.
c2 Have a specific plan for addressing potential behavioral problems.
c3 Set up behavioral expectations and consequences at the beginning of the activity especially the first time you use it.
c4 Move from simple concepts to more complex.
c5 Preplan your activity thoroughly. Supply as much structure as needed for your comfort.
c6 Begin and move through the movement activity quickly.
c7 Use pairs or groups to help manage the class.
c8 Make sure the entire class is engaged even if they are not actually performing the movement. Example: thumbs-up, thumbs down.
c9 Use movement activities as a check for understanding or to identify misconceptions.
c10 Give opportunity to do movements individually and as part of a group.
c11 Consistent oral feedback during movement activities helps them remain engaged.
c12 Have students write out in words what they did in their movement activity and why this movement was appropriate.
c13 Encourage students to construct their own methods of movement to describe a particular concept.
c14 Use probing questions to find out why students used a particular movement to represent a concept.
c15 Use debriefing after (non-review) activities to make sure they were meaningful - students made the connection to the concept/content or understood the main ideas.
ACTIVE ANALOGIES: (9) draw it act it out mind map it describe it with 2 words make up a rhyme sing it make an acronym make a story fill the board review relay (Schulte, 2003)
P. Schulte-December 4, 2003
Physical Science (10)
71 Molecules in motion (solid, liquid, gas)
72 Phase changes (as heat source is added or taken away)
73 Light travels faster than sound (run a race between light an sound students predict who wins
74 Inertia (move quikly with a glass or water, quickly stop)
77 Cohesion of water molecules
78 Evaporation-as a liquid warms, some of its molecules move so fast they bounce off into the air.
79 Water boiling
713 Magnetic attraction and repulsion: iron steel, cobalt, nickel are attracted to a magnet, brass, aluminum, tin silver, stainless steel, copper, bronze, gold are not. Do mix, pair, discuss Have tags repulsed or attracted thumbs up thumbs down.
715 Conductors and nonconductors: metals are good conductors of electricity, most other solid materials are not. Students form a circle (circuit)-assign cards to different students (cotton, paperclip)-introduce each to circle, ask class 3will the bulb light?4
Earth/Space Science (10)
76 Types of weathering: physical and chemical
77 Erosion: wind, water, glacier, gravity
78 Constellations: each group assigned different one, form it within group, have the other groups guess using chart. Point out: the pattern of a constellation depends on the position of the observer in space.
710 Solar eclipse
711 Lunar eclipse
712 Different types of faults list them
713 Anticlines and Synclines
714 Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks: students act out how each form. Other students guess, students make chart showing clues for each type.
715 Water Cycle
Life Science (10)
71 Five senses
72 Body parts
73 Body systems
74 Organ functions
75 System functions
76 Ex.: pulse, circulation, digestion, muscle functions
77 Types of joints
78 Antagonistic muscle pairs
79 Changes in environment or habitat
711 Food chains and webs
712 Nitrogen cycle
713 Types of organisms P. Schulte-December 4, 2003
CLOSURE BRAINSTORM (Think-Pair-Share)What other science in motionterms can you think of? ________________________________________________________________
(1) TPR Guiding Principles http://coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/L2MethodsMMdl/tsld013 .
(2) Asher, James J. (1982). Learning another language through actions. Los Gatos,
CA: Sky Oaks Productions.
(3) Adapted from: Project WET. (1995). Project WET curriculum and activity guide.
Boseman, MT: The Watercourse and Council for Environmental Education.
(4) Adapted from: ESOL Lesson Plan.
(5) Adapted from: Carpet Square Challenge.
(6) Iruio, S. Teaching Techniques. http://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/thomasrl/YaTeachTech.pdf
(7) Schulte, P.L. (2003, November 14). Social Studies in motion. Paper Presented at the
National Conference of the National Council for the Social Studies. Chicago, IL.
(8) Schulte, P.L. (2003). Social Studies in motion. Article submitted to Social Studies & the
Young Learner (in review). Silver Spring, MD: NCSS.
(9) Schulte, P.L. (2003, October 28). Recognizing and addressing individual differences in
the secondary classroom: Strategies for the real world. Paper Presented at the
Tangipahoa Cohort 3 Teacher Inservice. Hammond, LA.
(10) Schulte, P.L. (2002, October 25). Science in motion. Paper Presented at the State
Conference of the Louisiana Science Teachers Association. Lafayette, LA.
Related Web Sites:
P. Schulte-December 4, 2003