Qualitative Versus Quantitative

A variable is a characteristic of an object. Their values may occur more than once for a set of data. We consider just two main types of variables in this course.

Quantitative Variables - Variables whose values result from counting or measuring something.

Examples: height, weight, time in the 100 yard dash, number of items sold to a shopper

Qualitative Variables - Variables that are not measurement variables. Their values do not result from measuring or counting.

Examples: hair color, religion, political party, profession

Designator - Values that are used to identify individuals in a table. Designator values usually do not repeat in a table, but variable values often do repeat.

Examples: name, rank, jersey number of a team member, cell phone number, license number.

Exercises: In the tables below identify which columns represent qualitative variables, which columns represent quantitative variables, and which columns represent designators.

1) Highest U.S. Dams

Name

Height

River

State

Completed

Oroville

754

Feather

CA

1968

Hoover

725

Colorado

NV

1936

Dworshak

718

N Fork Clearwater

ID

1873

Glen Canyon

708

Colorado

AZ

1966

New Bullards Bar

636

North Yuba

CA

1970

New Melones

626

Stanislaus

CA

1979

Swift

610

Lewis

WA

1958

Mossyrock

607

Cowlitz

WA

1968

Shasta

600

Sacramento

CA

1945

Hungry Horse

564

S Fork Flathead

MT

1953

Grand Coulee

551

Columbia

WA

1942

Ross

541

Skagit

WA

1949

 

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998

 

2) Super Bowls

No.

Year

Winner

Winning

Score

Loser

Losing Score

Winning

Coach

Game

Site

I

1967

Packers

35

Chiefs

10

Lombardi

Los Angeles

II

1968

Packers

33

Raiders

14

Lombardi

Miami

III

1969

Jets

16

Colts

7

Ewbank

Miami

IV

1970

Chiefs

23

Vikings

7

Stram

New Orleans

V

1971

Colts

16

Cowboys

13

McCafferty

Miami

VI

1972

Cowboys

24

Dolphins

3

Landry

New Orleans

VII

1973

Dolphins

14

Redskins

7

Shula

Los Angeles

VIII

1974

Dolphins

24

Vikings

7

Shula

Houston

IX

1975

Steelers

16

Vikings

6

Noll

Miami

X

1976

Steelers

21

Cowboys

17

Noll

Pasadena

XI

1977

Raiders

32

Vikings

14

Madden

New Orleans

 

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1998

 

Answers

The following are some examples of qualitative and quantitative variables. You may not use these examples for ESA 2, but you may use similar tables of information.

 

MPG Data Table

The following information came from www.cjlt.ca/index.php/cjlt/article/viewArticle/34/31 on June 27, 2011. The table in the article contains a lot more information than this, so I just copied the information needed from the first 21 rows. This is a fairly complex example. There are much simpler examples available that would satisfy the criteria for ESA 2.

The "Year" column is quantitative and the "Location" column is qualitative.

Authors Year Location
Corstan and Colman 1996 UK
DeLaere et. al. 1998 USA
Hall and Cooper 1991 USA
Hanson 1990 USA
Hawk 1989 USA
Jones and McComac (study 1) 1992 UK
Jones and McComac (study 2) 1992 UK
Kim and Moon (study 3) 1998 Korea
Kim and Moon (study 4) 1998 Korea
Lee and Moray 1992 USA
Lerch et. al. (study 1) 1997 USA
Lerch et. al. (study 3) 1997 USA
Lerch et. al. (study 4) 1997 USA
Muenier 1995-96 USA
Muir and Moray (study 1) 1996 CND-FR
Muir and Moray (study 2) 1996 CND-FR
Robinson-Stavely and Cooper (study 1) 1990 USA
Robinson-Stavely and Cooper (study 2) 1990 USA
Rosenthal 1990 USA
Song 1990 USA
Sproul, et. al. 1991 USA

The qualitative variable "County" has only three possible outcomes: D, B and B/D, and I want at least four possible values for the categorical variable you find for ESA 2. The other two possible qualitative variables, "Public Boat Landing" and "Other Public Access", have too many blank cells to be acceptable.

Lakes Data Table

 

Again, you may not use any of the examples given on this site for ESA 2, but you may use similar tables of information.