Perception Study Guide 4

Important Terms/Concepts

Measure touch sensitivities 
    Von Frey hairs 
    Two point thresholds 
Physiology of touch 
    Four types of nerve fibers 
        Adaptation 
            Fast vs. slow 
        Receptive field size 
            punctate vs. diffuse 
    Four types of touch machnoreceptors 
        Meisner corpuscles 
        Merkel disks 
        Ruffini endings 
        Pacinian corpuscles 
Touch pathways 
    Reflex arc 
    Spinothalamic pathway
    Leminscal pathway (aka dorsal column pathway)
Somatosensory cortex 
    4 maps of sensory cortex: light touch vs. deep touch 
Pain perception 

Nociceptors

Pain fibers (a-delta; c)
    Gate theory  
        substantia gelatanosa (G cells) 
        transmission cells (T cells)
        effects of long and short fiber activity

        Effects of top-down pain interpretations

Phantom limbs (somatosensory map reorganization)
Smell 

stimulus volatility
Trimethylaminuria

Pheromones

Classifying smells

Henning’s smell prism

MDS classification of smells

Molecular structure and smell 
    Physio of smell 
        Olfactory epithelium 
        Olfactory binding protein 
        Olfactory bulb 
        receptor cells 

Receptor proteins
            regeneration of receptor cells 
            long and short term adaptation

anosmias 
            glomeruli 

olfactory pathways

Common chemical sense

Bistability

Odor sensitivity: gender and aging effects
Taste 
    stimulus solubility 
    4 primary tastes 
            sour, salty, sweet, bitter 

Umami

Physiology of taste

papillae
            taste buds 

microvillae

Taste pathways

Connections to limbic structures

Connections to somatosensory cortex

Primary gustatory cortex: functions

Secondary gustatory cortex: functions

Taste processing over time (epochs 1-3)

“Tasters” vs. “non-tasters”: physical differences
Taste adaptation

Cross-adaptation

Taste modification (illusions and/or after-effects)

Taste suppression

Smell and taste