Perception Study Guide 1

Important Terms/Concepts

Three aspects of Perception

 The physical world
 The functioning of the nervous system

 The conscious experience or the perception

Psychophysics

Reality and perceptual processing 

functional vs. truthful perception
Bonnet’s syndrome

Perception and Philosophy

            Materialsm

            Dualism

            Emergence

Near senses vs. far distance senses

Perception and Philosophy

            Plato’s cave

            John Lock: primary and secondary qualities

            Humean skepticism

            Naïve realism

            Subjective Idealism or solipsism

Levels of analysis in  perception

            Psychological: Naturalistic/Phenomenological; Experimental

            Biological: Brain imaging techniques

            Theoretical

Vision 
    The physical stimulus 
        Electromagnetic spectrum 
        Visable light (400-700nm) 
            wavelength and hue 
            amplitude and brightness 
            purity and saturation 
        Terms used to describe visible light 
            radiance (or radient energy) 
            illuminance 
            luminance (or luminent energy or reflectance) 
            lightness vs. brightness 

Reflectance curves
The Eye

Frontal vs. lateral; mobile vs. immobile 
    Three concentric layers 
        Fibrous 
        Vascular 
        Retina 
            detached retina: causes, treatments 
    Structures: front to back 
        cornea 
        anterior chamber 
        aqueous humor 
            glaucoma: measures of eye pressure (tomometry) 
                closed angle 
                open angle 
        lens 
            cataracts 
            presbyopia 
        iris 
        pupil 
            depth of field 
        vitreous chamber 
        vitreous humor 
    retina 
        blind spot 
        fovea 
        rods vs. cones 
            geographical differences 
            numerical differences 
            functional differences 

Eye as an optical instrument 
    divergence of light waves 
    refraction: cornea and lens 
    angle of divergence and object distance 
    angle of incidence 
    matching the shape of the eye with its refractive power 
    emmetropic 
    myopic 
        far point 
        necessity of concave lens 
        refractive surgery 
    hyperopia 
        near point 
        necessity of convex lens 
Processing light in the retina 
            photopigment 
            opsin and retinal 
            absorbtion of light energy 
            isomerization 
            pigment bleaching 
        pigment regeneration 
            epithelial layer 
            vitamin A 
    Retinal ganglion cells 
        significance of the the ganzfeld 
        center-surround receptive fields 
        line, edge enhancement 
        resolution vs. sensitivity: degree of convergence 
        receptive field size and retinal geography: center vs. periphery

        Horizontal cells

        Amacrine cells

        Bi-polar cells 
        M, P, & K retinal ganglion cells 
        Visual phenomenon associated with retinal gaglion cell function 
            Mach bands 
            Hermann grid 
            simultaneous lightness contrast and constancy 
            photopic vs. scotopic vision 
            Purkinje shift

Dark adaptation 
Visual pathways 
    optic nerve vs. optic tract 
        temporal or ipsilateral fibers 
        nasal or contra-lateral fibers 
        why crossover at optic chiasm? 
            nasal retina vs. temporal retina 
        magnocellular vs. parvocellular fibers 
    superior colliculus 
    lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus 
        parvo vs. magno layer 
        retinotopic maps of LGN 
        optic radiations 
    Primary Visual Cortex 
        Input layer and sites for M and P projections 
        Blob vs. inter-blob regions 
            simple cells 
            complex cells 

Binocular cells
            columns 
            hypercolumns 
            segregation of color, form, movement processing

            Cortical magnification

Families of cells as feature detectors
        Temporal vs. Parietal pathways 
            what vs. where (or how to) systems