Study Guide 4 Everything in Chapters 8-10, with special emphasis on:

Difference between physiology and psychophysics

Fredrich Bessel and the personal equation

Charles Bell and Francois Megendie and Bell-Megendie Law

Johannes Muller (doctrine of specific nerve energies, doctrine of adequate stimulation, Kantian beliefs)

Von Helmholtz (conservation of energy and vitalism, rate of nerve conduction studies, trichromatic vision theory, resonance place theory, unconscious inferences)

Ewald Hering and opponent process theory

Ladd-Franklin’s evolutionary color vision theory, color deficiencies as evidence

F. J. Gall and phrenology (connection to faculty psychology, basic assumptions, reasons for popularity, formal discipline, mental muscles, localized function)

Flourens studies against phrenology

Broca and Wernicke’s studies on localization of language

Brain mapping using electrical stimulation: David Ferrier and Wilder Penfield

Ernst Weber (two-point thresholds, Weber’s law, JND)

Gustav Fechner (psychophysical methods, Fechner’s law, absolute and differences thresholds)

Schools of psychology, define school

Wilhelm Wundt and voluntarism (immediate experience, mediate experience, higher cognition, elements of thought, combinatorial laws, experimental introspection, mental chronometry, perception, apperception, creative synthesis, principles of contrast, physical causality vs. psychological causality)

Cornelius Donders: reaction-time studies

Titchener’s structuralism (consciousness vs. mind, what, how, why of mental life, introspection, stimulus error, catalog of elements, sensations and affections, law of contiguity, attention and clarity)

Factors leading to the decline of Structuralism

Brentano and Act Psychology (passive vs. active mind, intentionality, phenomenological methods)

Carl Stumpf: connection to Gestalt psychology and clever Hans.

Kulpe and the Wurzberg school: connection to Husserl’s Phenomology, imageless thought, mental sets, important distinction between mental process and mental contents.

Ebbinghaus’s memory studies (retention curve, re-leaning task, savings score, ‘non-sense’ syllables, meaning, overlearning)

Vaihinger’s as if approach, connection to Machian positivists and later Pragmatists, useful fictions

Principles of natural selection

Early evolutionary ideas (Buffon, Lamark and acquired traits)

Spencer (survival of the fittest, social Darwinism, learned adaptive associations, evolutionary associationism, progressive evolution)

Darwin, Wallace, and Malthus

Darwin and the evolutionary origin of human emotions

Wilson and sociobiology

Hamilton and inclusive fitness


Galton (eminence, questionnaire study, mental imagery, correlational studies, regression toward the mean, ideographic approach)

De Candolle and nature/nurture debate

Cattell’s ten tests, Wissler’s findings

Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale, important properties of; Binet’s view of intelligence, mental orthopedics)

IQ formula

Spearman’s view of intelligence, factor analysis, little g, little s’s

Cyril Burt

Deteriorating National intelligence

Goddard and Kallikak study

Terman, Stanford-Binet, termites

Stetter-Hollingworth and Thorndike, labeling and gifted children

Yerkes, Army Alpha and Beta, point score

Wechsler scales, important properties of