Psyc 421/521 Study guide 3

All text in Chapters 5-7, special emphasis on following terms and concepts

British Empiricists (basic assumptions of)

Thomas Hobbs (basic view of human nature, attention, memory, determinism, thought, law of contingency)

John Locke (dualism, primary/secondary qualities, paradox of basins, associative learning)

George Berkeley (Idealism/empiricism, theory of perception, understanding of distance, God as ultimate observer)

David Hume (empirical science of human nature based on inductive method, impressions, ideas, imagination, belief, laws of association, theory of motivation, sense of self)

David Hartley (vibratiuncles, theory of skill development)

James Mill (simple vs. complex ideas, vividness and frequency)

JS Mill (mental chemistry, primary and secondary laws, ethology)

Alexander Bain (early brain physiology, theory of learning, compound and constructive associations)

French Sensationalists (Gassendi, La Mettrie, Condillac – connection between Helvetius and Watson)

La Mettrie’s argument(s) against dualism, Condillac’s sentient statue

Positivism (Comte vs. Mach)

Comte’s three stages


Rationalists: active vs. passive mind, top-down vs. bottom-up processing, definition of innate

Baruch Spinoza (pantheism, panpsychism, double aspectism, determinism, passions vs. emotions, clear ideas vs. unclear ideas)

Malebranche’s occasionalism

Leibniz (monads, pre-established harmony, petites perceptions, apperceptions, limen)

Thomas Reid (common sense, mental faculties, direct realism, connection to J. J. Gibson’s direct perception and affordances)

Immanuel Kant (innate categories, categorical imperative, attacks on Hume, connection to E. J. Gibson’s work on infant perception)

W. F. Hegel (Absolute, dialectic process, connection to Gestalt Psychology)

J. F. Herbart (opposition to faculty and physiological psychology, ideas as monads, apperceptive mass, repression, limen, mathematical approach to the mind, implications for education)

Romanticists (criticisms of Rationalists, Sensationalists, Empiricists; centrality of the irrational, subjective)

Rousseau (view of human nature, noble savage, general vs. individual will, connection to humanistic psychology)

Goethe (oppositional experience, phenomenology, studies in perception, evolutionary view of humans)

Schopenhauer (noumenal vs. phenomenal world, will to survive, suffering, sublimation, repression, connection to Freudianism)

Existentialism (major themes, freedom, subjectivism)

Kierkegaard (experience it Truth, leap of faith, stages of freedom)

Nietzsche (Apollonian vs. Dionysian, will to power, convictions, superman, connection to Cynics)