Study Guide 2; Everything in Chapters 3-4 with special emphasis on:

Major concerns of Roman and Post-Roman philosophy

Skepticism

                Pyrrho of Elis

                Dogmatism

                Convention

                Appearance

                Knowledge and human happiness

Cynicism: contrast between Antisthenes and Diogenes

Epicureanism

Stoicism (Zeno of Citium)

Neoplatonism

                Philo of Alexandria

                Plotinus

                St. Paul

                Augustine of Hippo (free-will, views on memory, time, relationship of reason and faith,

introspection)

Islamic Philosophy (preservation of Aristotle)

                Avicenna (theory of senses, views on active intellect)

                Averroes (commentaries on Aristotle, theory of eye function)

                Christian Pre-Scholastics

                                Anselm (ontological argument, relationship of reason and faith)

                                Peter Lombard (book of works, three paths to understanding God)

                Scholastics

                                Abelard (dialectic method, conceptualism, views on morality)

                                Albert the Great (views on studying nature, reason and revelation, work on Aristotle)

                                Aquinas (“evolutionary” views on human nature, material continuity, anti-dualism,

parental investment, paternity certainty, resource competition, marriage/pair-bonding)

                                William of Occam (Occam’s razor applied to nominalist/realist debate, study of natural

world, beginning of separate empirical studies

Major themes of Renaissance Humanism (individualism, subjectivism, Platonism, optimism)

Important early Humanists

                Pico

                Petrarch

                Erasamus

                Luther

                Montaigne

Rise of Science (Definition of science; “trust” requirements)

                Ptolemy and his universe

                Copernicus and his universe

                Kepler and his contribution(s)

                Galileo: (falling objects, de-amination of nature, effects on Aristotle’s influence, primary vs.

secondary qualities, views on consciousness)

Newton (law of gravity, deism, principles of Newtonian science)

Bacon (radical positivism, biases in observation, science of light vs. fruit)

Descartes (dualist interactionism, innate ideas, reflex action, animal spirits)