Psyc 421/521 Study guide 1

All text in Chapters 1-2, special emphasis on following terms and concepts

Defining Psychology and Science

Science according to Popper: observation, conjectures, refutation, falsifiability, Truth

Science according to Kuhn: subjective, social, paradigmatic, anomalies, three phases of science, normal vs. revolutionary science

Important differences between Kuhn and Popper

Psychology as science: Determinism

                Physical and Psychical determinants

                Indeterminism, nondeterminism, hard and soft determinism

Mind/Body issue

Materialism, idealism, dualism, interactionism, emergentism, parallelism, occassionalism, epiphenomenalism, pre-established harmony

Nativism vs. Empiricism

Rationalism vs. Irrationalism

Naïve realism vs. reification

Universalism vs. Relativism

The problem of the self

Ancient Greece: Archaic, Classic, and Hellenistic periods.

Logos, Mythos, Critical approach, physis, arche, cosmology

Major contributions of:


Anaximander (apeiron)



Zeno (paradoxes)

Pythagoras (mathematical truth, dualistic universe)

Empedocles (four elements, love and strife, Eidola theory)

Anaxagoras (all in all, mind or nous)

Democritus (atomic theory, elementalism, reductionism, determinism, atomic theory of perception)

Sophists (rhetoric)

Protagoras (moral relativism, epistemological subjectivism)

Gorgias (nihilism, solipsism)

Socrates (Socratic or dialectical method, inductive definitions, essences)

Plato (major influences)

                Nativism, reminiscence, allegory of the cave, forms vs. appearances, tripartite soul


Embodied essences, four causes, teleology, unmoved mover, types of soul, common sense, active/passive reason, laws of association, theory of imagination, golden mean

Greek Medicine: temple vs. natural approach, mind/body connection, Alcmeaon and Hippocrates