J. Phillips, J. (1996). The hard man: Rugby and the formation of male identity in New Zealand. In J. Nauright, T.J. L. Chandler, (Eds.), Making men: Rugby and masculine identity (pp. 70-90). London: Frank Cass. (M)

Outline the history of rugby and how it came to be seen as “manly education tempered by civilizing restraints”

Discuss the connection between rugby in England and New Zealand; describe how rugby spread in New Zealand; why was it so popular?

What factors caused rugby to remain largely an upper class pursuit in Southern England, while spreading to the working classes in northern England and New Zealand?

Describe how rugby fit with the male culture of New Zealand and how efforts were made to “civilize” the sport.

Describe how a more “civilized” form of rugby became seen as a way of training ‘muscular gentlemen’. How did concerns about the “feminizing” effect of urban life play into this?

What are the moral lessons that rugby was thought to inculcate in young males?

What effect did the success of the All Blacks have on England.

1.)    How did Rugby teach character?

2.)    Why did Rugby appeal to both the Elite and the Country Men?

3.)    What basic aspects of Rugby enabled it to thrive particularly well in New Zealand?

4.)    Why would a Rugby player make a good solider?

5.)    What societal factors led to the popularity of Rugby in New Zealand?

6.)    How might have the elements of Rugby specifically contributed to the survival of the Andes crash survivors?