Hayden, B. (2003). Shamans, sorcerers, and saints: A prehistory of religion. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books (chapter 5 pp. 122-166: “Complexity emerges in the hunter-gatherer world”). (L)

Define the Upper Paleolithic period both temporally and in terms of distinctive paleoanthropological characteristics.

Distinguish between complex and simple or generalized hunter-gatherers. Why might complex h-gs have first emerged during the UP in Europe?

Why are complex h-gs considered “transegalitarian” (as opposed to egalitarian)?

What factor(s) is (are) important in the emergence of complex h-gs?

What evidence indicates the richest societies in Europe and West Asia during the UP were complex h-gs?

What types of religious ritual behavior appear to be uniquely associated with complex h-gs?

What is feasting? Why does the author argue that true “feast” only occur with complex h-gs?

What role does record-keeping play in complex h-g feasts?

What is the connection between deep cave rituals and “secret societies?” What evidence suggests that the painted caves of the UP were venues for exclusive rituals?

How did ecstatic, stressful rituals get transformed in complex h-g societies?

Describe the evidence for shamanism in the UP.

What evidence is there indicating that fertility was becoming an increasing concern among complex h-gs? What would this be so?

Describe the Lepenski Vir site. What evidence suggests feasting, ancestor cults and other characteristics common to complex h-gs?