Study Guide: Psy440

1) Everything in chapters 11-12, plus any additional readings handed out in class. Plus all past chapters and everything on past study guides. Special emphasis on:

2) Syllogistic reasoning
    a) valid conclusion vs. not valid
    b) premises
    c) using Venn diagrams to solve

3) Conditional reasoning
    a) antecedent condition
    b) consequent
    c) affirming/denying antecedent
    d) affirming/denying consequent
    e) valid vs. invalid conclusions
    f) Wason selection task
    g) social contracts problems
4) Decision making
    a) physical differences and jnd
    b) symbolic differences, symbolic distance effect
    c) semantic congruity effect
    d) plausible reasoning effects and distortions of geographic knowledge
5) Algorithms vs. Heuristics
    a) types of heuristics that bias decisions: availability, representativeness, anchoring, confirmation, base-rate bias
6) Naive physics

7) Problem solving
     a) Kohler's research on insight
     b) Duncker's work on functional fixedness
     c) Luchin's work on set effects
     d) Neuroscience of insight learning
8) Analogical thinking 
     a) Gick and Holyoak's work on analogical thinking and problems solving
     b) Holyoak and Thagard's multi-constraint theory (factors important in the effectiveness of analogies in problem solving)
     c)  Neuroscience of analogical thinking
9) Means-End Analysis
     a) initial state
    b) goal state
    c) problem space
    d) operators
    e) subgoals

10) GPS (General Problem Solver)
    a) production systems
    b) limitations of GPS