Study Guide: Test 2
 Psy440

1) All of Chapters 5-7 plus any addition readings. Pay extra attention to the following:

2) Short term memory
     a) James: primary vs. secondary memory
     b) Miller: stm capacity, chunking, recoding
     c) Brown-Peterson task: duration of stm
3) Interference vs. decay in stm
    a) Waugh and Norman: role of retroactive interference
    b) Wickens release from PI: role of proactive interference
4) Serial order effects: LTM/STM distinction (primacy vs. recency effects)
5) Sternberg task and search of STM
6) Baddeley's model of WM (structures/functions/brain areas)
     a) Central executive: function
     b) Phonological loop: structures/functions; phonological similarity and articulatory suppression effects
     c) Visual Spatial sketchpad (mental rotation studies)
     d) Episodic buffer: creating meaningful memories
     e) selective interference effects and independence of WM systems
 7) WM span: how to measure, association with:
    a) distractability
    b) word fluency
    c) consistency in reasoning
    d) filtering of irrelevancies

 8) LTM systems: declarative vs. non-declarative and all subsystems therein
 9) Mnemonics
    a) Method of Loci
    b) Peg word system
    c) acronyms
    d) principles

10) Ebbinghaus on memory
    a) relearning task
    b) savings score
    c) forgetting curve
11) Episodic memory
     a) frequency (mass vs. distributed practice)
     b) distinctiveness (von Restorff effect)
  12) Depth of processing
    a) maintenance vs. elaborative rehearsal
    b) self-reference, generation, enactment effects
13) Encoding
    a) Organized vs. random
    b) Imagery (dual-code hypo)
    c) Encoding specificity hypothesis (recall beats recognition)

14) Retrieval
    a) state and context effects
    b) decay vs. interference (Jenkins and Dallenbach study)
    c) proactive vs. retroactive interference

15) Brain damage studies
    a) KC (semantic vs. episodic)
    b) HM (implicit vs. explicit)
    c)  antegrade vs. retrograde amnesia
    d) HERA model

16) Semantic memory
    a) propositional or sentence verification task
    b) nodes
    c) pathways or links
    d) spreading activation (rts following links)
    e) propositions
    f) cognitive economy
    g) typicality problem
17) Hierarchical vs. non-hierachical models (semantic relatedness)
18) Semantic feature comparison model
    a) characteristic vs. defining features
    b) two-stage comparison process

19) PDP or connectionists models (weighted connections)
20) Semantic priming
    a) Lexical decision task
    b) unconscious priming
    c) automatic vs. controlled priming (category shift studies)
21) Bartlett and schema theory
    a) War of Ghosts study
    b) effects of schemas, scripts, and frames
22) Theories of categorization
    a) Classical view (typicality problem)
    b) Probabilistic view, prototypes and family resemblance
    c) Exemplar view and correlated attributes