May 8, 2008
I. Intelligence: Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully,
and deal effectively with the environment. It is a hypothetical, abstract
a. Controversy: Defining it with a measure on a quantitative test is
difficult. Can it be measured with a number? Are you measuring the totality
b. What this definition lacks is that there is a certain amount of
knowledge that is accumulated over time (stored knowledge).
c. Researchers that are more committed to testing, look at intelligence
as stored knowledge.
II. HISTORY OF MEASURING INTELLIGENCE
1. 1905: Beginning of testing. However the people involved didn’t realize
they were actually measuring intelligence.
2. In France, something drastic was changing. Education was becoming
compulsory. All children had to attend school until a certain age. Questions
of what were the children bringing to this setting and were there going
to be enough teachers etc.
3. Alfred Binet was hired to create a test for intellectual skills
of children entering French public school systems. This helped place the
children according to their current status so they could be challenged
a. This test made its way to a man named Lewis Terman. He took Binet’s
test, translated it to English so it could be used in the American situation.
It then began to be referred to as an “Intelligence Test.” Began to be
called the “Stanford-Binet Test of Intelligence.” It was really simple
to interpret and understand.
b. Stanford-Binet and Wechsler: most widely used individual intelligence
test. Both tests compute an intelligence quotient (IQ), which compares
the deviation of a person’s test score to norms for that person’s age group.
c. –Original version of Stanford-Binet (IQ=MA/CA x 100) this is your
Mental Age divided by your chronological Age times 100. A perfect score
of 100 means that mental age matches his chronological age. If the mental
age exceeds or falls below the mental age, it determines the IQ accordingly.
It was an easy to use scale.
d. Another thing this test (and others like it) did and continues to
do is to be a good predictor of academic success. Those with higher scores
were more likely to get A’s and B’s and graduate. Those with lower scores
were more likely to make poor grades and not graduate.
e. No test is perfect though. It doesn’t mean that someone that makes
a 50 will not graduate or make good grades.
f. The normal distribution of IQ was standardized into a normal distribution.
Most scores (70%) will fall either one standard deviation above or below
the norm. People who take the test will usually fall between 85 and 115.
(95%) will fall 2 standard deviations above or below the norm of 100.
4. LIMITATIONS OF STANFORD-BINET TEST
a. Mainly for kids.
b. Very verbally dependant. It was criticized for looking at verbal
intelligence. In 1939 David Wechsler created intelligence test for adults
composed of 11 subscales measuring both verbal and non-verbal (or performance)
c. What Weschler has on his scales is two large sections that have
1. Verbal section
2. Performance section (non-verbal)
You end up with a verbal score , performance score, and a total score;
a total of three scores. You can score higher on one or two subscales than
-Most popular IQ tests today
-WAIS (Weschler Adult Intelligence scale) –Adults; WISC (Weschler
Intelligence scale for children) and WPPSI (Weschler Primary Preschool
Scale of Intelligence)
3. The Weschler must be given on an individual basis. It cannot be
given in a group setting. The administrator must be trained to give the
a. Many times these tests are given to kids. They get fidgety
and distracted. You don’t want to measure this but the intelligence of
b. If the person gets tired, the test giver can stop and give
them a break. All factors such as lack of motivation, tiredness etc. need
to be eliminated so that only intelligence is measured.
c. It is not uncommon for someone to have a total score that
are broken up into sub-scores.
4. There are other tests that are given in a group setting. These may
be called intelligence or aptitude tests. They are measuring something,
but are not the best. “Quick and dirty” These come from WWII as it started
to involve the U.S. Masses of people were brought into the military. The
intellectual level varied quite a bit. It was important that the Army get
some idea of where these people were at and what positions would be appropriate
for each person. They didn’t have time or resources to give the Weschler
test to all recruits. They needed a mass administered test.
a. ARMY ALPHA AND BETA: It is basically a multiple choice test.
You must be able to read. So this was the test for literate recruits. The
Army BETA was completely Non-verbal and was for non-literate recruits.
These tests proved to be reasonably successful for placement and prediction.
Someone who scored well was more likely for officer material.
b. It is from these beginnings, that you get the whole mass standardized
*Ex. The ACT is very good at predicting and placement within Universities.
(again, they can be wrong…they are not perfect)
II. CONTROVERSY OF WHETHER WHAT WE ARE MEASURING ON THESE TESTS IS
A. People argue both ways
B. Historical views of intelligence:
1. SPEARMAN: argued there was a single ability or general factor called
“g”. He said there was a certain capacity or ability to allow you
to learn. He argued FOR the idea of a general intelligence among individuals
and it varies from one to another. He argued AGAINST specific types of
intelligence. He says the general intelligence is applied to only one topic
and it is not deficient.
2. THURSTONE and GUILFORD: Argued AGAINST the “g”. They thought of
intelligence as separate and different entities.
3. CATTELL: Came along and argued that intelligence is both a fluid
and a crystallized type of intelligence. The fluid is the “g” (working
(processing of) intelligence) and the crystallized is the (stored intelligence)
which are separate from each other.
a. These are still used in literature today and argued between.
4. GARDNER AND STERNBERG: Multiple abilities. They overact and interact.
They are not completely isolated. These two researchers are well known.
A. DIFFERENT KINDS OF INTELLIGENCES AND HOW THEY WORK
1. Linguistic: language use and verbal intelligence. Speak well, write
well. Teachers etc.
2. Spatial: Find your way around. Engineers etc.
3. Bodily/Kinesthetic: Movement with body. Dancers, athletes etc.
4. Intrapersonal/Interpersonal: Understanding yourself/Understand and
relate to others. Intrapersonal good in any area, Interpersonal, sales
5. Logical/Mathematical: problem solving, Mathmatical
B. Sternberg had THREE types of intelligence;
1. Analytical Intelligence: Good at analysis, evaluation, judgment
and comparison skills. Good in scholastic systems
2. Creative Intelligence: Good at invention, imaginative skills, discovery.
Open ended tasks, drawing and creating etc.
3. Practical Intelligence: Good at application, implementation, execution
and utilization skills. Drug dealers? etc. may not do well in school, but
can function and operate in their own environment and be successful.
C. MEASURING INTELLIGENCE
1. Standardized-establishes norms and uniform procedures for giving
and scoring tests.
2. Reliability-Measure of the consistency and stability of test scores
over time. Refers to consistency. Must be consistent over time. We envision
intelligence as relatively stable and not fluctuate much.
3. Validity-Ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
You are measuring what you say you are actually measuring. We say my test
is measuring intelligence, but there is something else out there that is
measuring intelligence and the two should correlate. Both tests should
correspond. All of these “things” or tests are corresponding with performance
in a school setting.