August 31, 2004
Priam is the last king of
would not return her because his son did not want to give her up. His other son, Hector, was the leader and best warrior of the Trojan army. Priam is killed on the last day of the Trojan war. He is killed by Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles in the middle of the city. As the last king of
The story of the Iliad is about the final year of the Trojan War. The Trojan War was between the Greeks and the Trojans over the kidnapping of queen Helen that lasted ten years. One of the Geeks bravest and toughest fighters was Achilles. Achilles was the son of a mortal man and of the sea nymph, Thetis. Achilles stops fighting for the Greeks because Agamemnon took away his prize, Briseis. Fearing of defeat to the Trojans, Agamemnon summons
What if you lived in a society where women were viewed as mere objects?What if a woman’s ability to earn respect in order to have an equal partnership with her husband was unmentionable?Despite how much a woman loved her husband, she could be auctioned off as if she were a slave.During the Trojan War, women appeared to be captives of the fighting men, just as slaves were held captives to their masters.Briseis was a woman who, despite her inability to be viewed as an equal to man, portrayed herself to be faithful and courageous during the roughest parts of her life.
Briseis, a Trojan mortal, lived a life full of happiness without fear or regret, until one day all her beloved possessions and family members banished from existence.Achilles, a great Greek warrior during the Trojan War, invaded Briseis’ residency, Lyrnessus, and murdered her husband, Mynes (Mortal Women of the Trojan War 1).The mercenary, Achilles, seized Briseis as a war prize enabling him to have her as a companion and a lover.After Briseis and Achilles formed an unbreakable bond of fidelity for each other, their lifestyles suddenly became disrupted.Agamemnon, leader of the Greeks, demanded Achilles to release Briseis into his possession (1).This act of depriving Achilles of his honor provoked him to relieve himself of duty in the war.Briseis remained courageous during this time of turmoil where her lover refused to participate in battle because she knew that one day he would return for her.When the Greeks realized their failure on the battlefield without Achilles, Agamemnon bribed Achilles with the return of Briseis.Briseis tried to persuade Achilles to accept Agamemnon’s offer by declaring:
Because of me your anger was moved because of me let it be ended, and let me be the cause and measure of your sadness… For my words fall in weight for nothing.However neither am I offended nor have I carried myself as a wife [because I have been] more often summoned, a slave, into my master’s bed.I remember a certain captive called me mistress.“Slavery,” I said, “you add the burden of a name.”(3)
Achilles refused Briseis’ proposal for him to fight in the war causing her to remain a captive of Agamemnon.Fortunately, for Briseis, Achilles returned to the battlefield when his friend, Patroclus’, life was snatched away from him, which allowed Briseis to escape her turmoil and to be declared Achilles’ woman once again.
Briseis’ ability to acquire the characteristics of courage and faithfulness allowed her to survive through turmoil and hardship.She tried to earn the respect of Achilles by holding little complaint as his stubborn nature pushed him a little farther away from her.Achilles soon realized, after falling in love with Briseis, that she was not defined as just an object.Briseis labeled herself as a wife, a lover, and a true companion which allowed the people within her society to view her as a remarkable woman.
“Mortal Women of the Trojan War.”Yahoo.1-6.26 August 2004.
pronounced HEE ruh, was the daughter of Cronus
and Rhea.Her husband and brother
and Zeus had three children, Hephaestus who was the smith-god, Hebe
who was the goddess of youth, and Ares, the god of war.Hera’s
children were not conceived with a man.Instead
they were conceived by eating lettuce or slapping her had to the ground.Hera
was the queen of the Olympian gods and she was the goddess of marriage
and birth.Her sacred animals were
the cow and peacock.Hera
was constantly jealous of her husband Zeus’ affairs and seeks to punish
his mistress and his children.One
instance was with Zeus’ lover Io.Zeus
turned Io into a black and white heifer soHera
could not find her.Hera
heard of this and sent Argos Panoptes, which
was all seeing, to guard Io and keep Zeus away.In
return Zeus had Hermes kill
is the most beautiful of all the immortals.She
was even more beautiful than Aphrodite.Hera’s
great power was thather
virginity is restored each year.This
was accomplished by her bathing in the well, canathus.With
all of Hera’s beauty and stubbornness, Zeus
sometimes found it hard to stand up to her.Zeus
would sometimes get mad and place anvils on her feet; this made her unable
to move.Zeus would then place her
Hera was a great patron of the Greeks; she was upset over the Trojan’s judgement of Pais.Her husband, on the other had, was sympathetic towards the Trojans.In The Iliad, Hera motivated Achilles to assemble the Greeks so that they could deal with the plague that was placed on them.She was on the side of the Greeks and wanted to help them in any way she could.Further on in The Iliad, Hera used deception to help the Greeks.Hera approached Aphrodite under false pretenses and tricked her into giving her an enchanted breastband that had the powers of love and longing.Hera then visited the embodiment of Sleep.She asked that he place Zeus into sleep, and as a reward for doing so he could marry one of her daughters.Sleep disguised himself as a bird and perched in a tree near Zeus.Hera then appeared to Zeus and he was engulfed with passion for Hera and they made love.Zeus quickly fell asleep and Hera went to Poseidon, god of the sea, and let him know that Zeus was fast asleep and that he could now help the Greeks be victorious.
Hera was a beautiful and powerful woman. She found it necessary to live in a world of deception and constant vengeance.She relied on trickery and fear to have people aid her in getting what she wanted.Her beauty was an advantage and she used it with a “no holds barred” attitude to gain anything and everything she wanted.
was the son of Thestor (a priest of Apollo)
and the most famous soothsayer of his time. Some say he was responsible
for the fall of
It had been predicted that Calchas should die when he met his superior in divination. The prophecy was fulfilled when Calchas met Mopsus after the war. He was beaten in a trial of soothsaying, and committed suicide.
Helen, The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships
ridiculous as it may sound, Helen of Sparta was born from an egg.
The egg is said to be laid by Leda, the Queen of Sparta, with Zeus being
the father. Some believe that the egg was that of Nemesis.
Others say that the egg from which Helen hatched fell from the moon.
Nonetheless, Helen, an immortal being, emerged from the egg and was raised
When Helen was a young girl of eleven or so, she was kidnapped by King Theseus of Athens, who thought she was extremely beautiful, and taken to Aphindna, a small city north of Athens. Helen’s brothers, the Dioscuri, and an army of men, came to rescue her. When they couldn’t find her they resorted to war.
Helen was eventually rescued and returned home. While being held by King Theseus, he took her virginity and impregnated her with a child by the name of Iphigeneia. For the sake of maintaining her virgin status, the child was given to her sister Clytemnestra, whom Helen served as a slave for, before the returned home.
When Helen reached a certain age many suitors came to win her hand. Helen chose Menelaus, and marriage was arranged. During the course of their marriage they were invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, the parents of Achilles. All gods were invited to this wedding except for Eris. In anger he threw one of the Golden Apples into the party, to be given as a prize of beauty to the fairest of the goddesses. Paris was appointed by Zeus to choose. He chose Aphrodite, who had offered the bribe of Helen! ’s hand.
Paris came to Sparta to fetch Helen. He seduced her and she left with him, abandoning her daughter and husband and taking some of their belongings. They boarded a ship and sailed away to Troy, where they married. Helen denies that any of this took place. Nevertheless, the war ensued, and Paris was killed. Paris’ brother Deiphobus 1 married Helen and was captured by Odysseus shortly after.
After the war Helen returned home to Sparta with Menelaus, having killed Deiphobus 1. They wandered many Mediterranean’s for eight long years. When Menelaus died, Helen went to stay with a friend. She was seized and hung from a tree.
Helen, the cause of the Trojan War, and one of the most beautiful goddesses, led a very confusing life. Some say that Helen helped the Achaeans during the war. Even so, the Trojans and Greeks all along disliked her.
Zeus was considered by the Greeks to be the god of gods.
He was the son of Cronus and Rhea. He was the husband of Hera and was the
father to five children: Ares, Athena, Aphrodite, Helen, and Sarpedon.
His five siblings were Demeter, Hades, Hestia, Hera, and Poseidon.
It had been prophesied to Cronus, Zeus’ father, that he would have one of his children take over everything he had power over. Cronos decides to eat all of his children to stop this from happening. His wife tricked him when it came time for him to eat Zeus, and she gave him a rock instead. This made him vomit all of Zeus’ siblings up. This is also about the time that Zeus became more powerful this his father.
After Zeus defeated his father, he and his two brothers, Poseidon and Hades, divided all of creation among the three of them. Poseidon took the sea as his kingdom. Hades took the underworld as his kingdom, and Zeus took the sky as his kingdom. This is why Zeus is sometimes known as the god of the sky. Zeus was given the most authority of the three of them, and ruled from Mount Olympus. At the beginning of his reign as the sky god, Zeus lived in the upper atmosphere and Mount Olympus. From this, the Greeks thought that Zeus controlled the lightening. They believed that when Zeus was mad he threw lightening bolts. If someone was struck by lightening, it was believed that he must have in someway done something against the Greeks since Zeus was the “Protector of the Greeks.”
Zeus was honored in different ways in ancient Greece. One of these were the Olympic games that took place every four years. Also, shrines were built in his honor throughout Greece. The most important of these shrines was in Dodona.
September 7, 2004
Idomeneus was the king of Crete and the leader
of the Cretan troops during the Trojan War. Idomeneus was the grandson
of Minos. He was fighting
on the side of the Trojans. He is famous for being a great warrior in battle. He fought hard in the battle against the Acheans. He fought until the battle
was at the end. After the strength of the Trojans fell, Idomeneus returns home. On the way towards home, Idomeneus runs into this terrible storm. To
escape the storm, Idomeneus makes a promise to the god Poseidon. The promise was to sacrifice the first living thing that he saw when he reached Crete
safely. After arriving of Crete, the first living thing to greet Idomeneus was his own son. Idomeneus did not want to kill his son. It was just a
coincidence that his son was the first living thing that greeted him as he departed the ship. As he promised, Idomeneus sacrifices his son to the god.
This act angered the gods, so they exiled Idomeneus to Calabria in Italy for eternity.
Achilles was a great warrior with incredible
strength and quickness. He is been the greatest warrior imaginable. Achilles
completely changed the Trojan
War when he decided to leave, and after many years come back. For a war that took ten years to finish, to think that one man could have so drastically
changed the outcome is hard to believe. But just the thought that Achilles was on the battlefield was enough confidence for the Greeks to win the war. This
is a big reputation for any man to handle. To know that people are that afraid of you and think that highly of you. This is also the reputation that got
Achilles in trouble.
Achilles was a man to admire. He had a close relationship with the gods, he was the greatest warrior, and he was noble. Okay, maybe he was not noble.
Everything that Achilles did was not to benefit the Greek army but to help him. Achilles was truly the total opposite of a team player. His pride always
seems to be his downfall. An argument with commander Agamemnon kept him out of the war, and even after several apologies, he still did not fight. Achilles
did not rejoin the war until his friend Patroclus, who Achilles had sent to fight in his place, was killed. And even then the only reason that Achilles
decided to fight was to seek revenge on Trojan Hector, who had killed his friend.
Throughout the story Achilles also seems to be a man who has little self-control. He seems to have trouble controlling his pride and the rage from
his pride being injured. He becomes so consumed in his anger that he abandons his fellow soldiers and wishes that the Trojans kill them. Partly because he
wanted to be the missing link.
The Muses are the Greek goddesses who preside
over the arts and sciences and inspire those who excel in these subjects.
The Muses are daughters of Zeus
who is the king of the gods, and Mnemosyne who is the goddess of memory. They were born at the Pieria at the foot of Mount Olympus. The Muses were raised my their nurse Eupheme. The name Muses comes from the Latin word mens and the English word mind. This denotes memory or reminder, and this is because the earliest poems weren’t written down they were just recited from memory. The Muses have not always been known as having nine. The original number of them and there names varies. The first three were the Muses that worshipped on Mount Helicon they were known as Melete Muse of meditation, Mneme Muse of memory and finally Aoede Muse of song. There were other variations before the Greeks finally established that there are nine muses. Their names are
Calliope Muse of epic poetry, Clio Muse of history, Euterpe Muse of lyric poetry, Melpomene Muse of tragedy, Terpsichore Muse of choral dance and song,
Erato Muse of love poetry, Polyhymnia Muse of scared poetry, Urania Muse of Astronomy, Thalia Muse of comedy. Not only does each of the Muses have a
different art or science to preside over, they had several epithets, which usually referred to places where they had settled. Mount Helicon is scared to
the Muses. A sacrifice to the Muses consists of water, milk or honey.
Sarpedon was the mortal son of Zeus, king of the gods. There is
confusion about who his mother was. Some texts say his mother was Laodamia,
the daughter of Bellerophon. Other texts say his mother was Europa and
that he had brothers named Minos and Rhadamanthys. Sarpedon had a cousin
named Glaucus. Sarpedon and Glaucus were co-captains of the Lycian forces.
They were both grandsons of the hero Bellerophon. They led one of the strongest
attackes on the wall of the Greek camp. Sarpedon was a Trojan War hero
and he was King of Lycia. During what would become his final battle, Sarpedon
and Patroclus came face to face with one another. Sarpedon’s father, Zeus,
was trying to decide if he should spare his son’s life or to leave it up
to fate to decide that. Hera, the wife and sister of Zeus, convinces him
not to interfere with fate, because doing so would cause the other gods
to become extremely vengeful and save their own offspring as well. He agrees
to let fate take its course, and in turn, his son Sarpedon is killed by
Patroclus’ spear. Zeus is heartbroken by the death of his son, but he knew
he had made the right decision in not interfering with the fight.
There was a great amount of fighting over Sarpedon’s body. After the Greeks ran to strip Sarpedon of his armor, Zeus could no longer just sit back and watch. He called on Hermes, the messenger of the gods, for help. He did not want his son’s body to be humiliated and dragged through the streets. Hermes called on the twin gods, Hypnos (god of sleep) and Thanatos (god of death), for help. These winged creatures swept up Sarpedon’s body and carried it to his home land of Lycia, where a proper burial would take place. His body was cleansed and anointed with ambrosia. In his honor, a sanctuary was erected. This sanctuary was called a Sarpedoneum.
While reading the Iliad, I concentrated on researching information
on the character Odysseus. Although Odysseus is not a main character in
the Iliad, his part portrays his character as a person and helps us to
better understand his upcoming role in the Odyssey. As he is first introduced
in book I of the Iliad, he is noted “the most subtle and crafty of
the Greeks”( Iliad 123). When his name is mentioned, it usually follows
a descriptive adjective about his personality such as “trusty Odysseus”(Iliad
123), “versatile Odysseus”(Iliad 128), and “tactful Odysseus”(Iliad 131).
Odysseus, also called Ulysses in Latin, was the ruler of the island kingdom of Ithica. His great-grandfather, Cephalus, once owned part of his land. Arcisius is Odysseus’ grandfather who bore Laertes, Odysseus’ father. Odysseus was one of the first suitors of Helen of Troy until Menelaus succeeded in winning her hand in marriage. Although Odysseus didn’t want to fight in the Trojan War, he fought more than heroically when he did fight. He was one of the most prominent Greek leaders in the Trojan War, respected for his dignity and respect for others. Odysseus was especially known for his intellect and eloquence used while speaking.
In the Iliad, Odysseus was instrumental in advising Agamemnon and controlling the army. In the Odyssey, Odysseus was the main and central character. He was the hero of the Odyssey, fighting very daring and dangerous battles. He wouldn’t ever retreat a battlefield in the presence of Trojans. He would fight to the death. He and Diomedes were noted for a nocturnal raid against the Trojans that bettered their ability to defeat them.
Odysseus was the inventor of the Trojan horse, what is said to be the stratagem by which the Greeks were finally able to take over Troy. Some say he was one of the many who was in the horse, hiding. After taking Troy, Odysseus started home. His ten years of trials and tribulations on his way home are chronicled in the Odyssey. After returning home, Odysseus discovers his wife, Penelope, had been unfaithful the past twenty years and managed to kill all of her suitors with his bow.
Some say Odysseus died of old age. Many say that his son, who was unaware of the matter, killed him and greatly lamented when he found out that he killed his father he had never known. Either way, Odysseus’ life was very important in the way history has developed from Ancient Greece. If it weren’t for Odysseus, the Trojan War would have turned out much differently.
Diomedes is said to be one of the best Greek soldiers of all time.
He was born in Argos as the son of Tydeus and Deipyle. He was the
grandson of Adrastus and the husband to Aegialia. His father and
grandfather were two of the seven heroes from the Greek legend, Seven Against
Thebes. In the legend Tydeus and Adrastus fought along with four
other men and Polynices to overthrow Polynices’ brother Eteocles for his
rightful place as King of Thebes. Unfortunately, the battle ended
with the crown going to Creon and all but Adrastus were killed. After
this the sons of the seven heroes, including Diomedes, led the successful
expedition of the Epigone. The expedition was intended to avenge
the deaths of their fathers and to rightfully restore the throne of Thebes
to Polynices’ son, Thersander. After the expedition, Diomedes succeeded
Adrastus and became King of Argos. After this, Diomedes decided to
fight alongside the Greeks in the Trojan War.
Diomedes was a key asset to the Achaean army during the war. During the war he became feared among the Trojan army because of his great strength against mortal and immortal opponents. One such incident was in his battle with Prince Aenas, the son of Aphrodite. During the battle Diomedes badly injured the Prince while his mother watched from Mt. Olympus. After seeing the extent of her son’s injuries, Aphrodite went to the battlefield and lifted the Prince in hopes of removing him from the war and saving him from death. When Diomedes saw her, he attacked her leaving her with a wounded wrist. Another opponent Diomedes faced in the war was Hector who was accompanied by the war-god Ares. With the help of Hera and Athena, Diomedes was able to injure Ares with a spear and force the Trojan army back from the field.
In The Iliad Diomedes was correctly portrayed as a brave and successful soldier. The narrative told stories of Diomedes’ experiences not only on the battlefront, but off as well. The story mentioned the time he met Glaucus and the two exchanged weapons in the decision not to fight each other. Also, Book V is centered on his battle with the gods. Diomedes’ role in the war was not as big as Agamemnon’s or Achilles’ and thus, he is not mentioned as frequently.
With the help of Diomedes, the Achaean army was able to withstand many battles during the Trojan War. He was a brave soldier that was ruthless and unafraid to fight for Greece
Hades, son of Cronus whom swallowed him to prevent the prophecy
that one of his offspring would grow to replace him on the throne and brother
to Zeus and Poseidon, was the god of the underworld. Zeus his brother
was the god of the sky and the living. He was the most powerful of
the three. Poseidon was the god of the sea and the people who traveled
it. Now there was Hades who ruled the dead. Hades was also
known as Pluto the Roman God and sometimes called the invisible one or
the Unseen. Hades abducted Persephone to be his wife and rule the
under world with him for a little while. He had to get Zeus’ approval
because she was not dead. They lives in a palace in the underworld.
Hades attire includes a hat made by Cyclopes that helps him to appear invisible.
He also has a staff in which he uses to guide the dead to the underworld.
The underworld was only intended for the dead. The Gods of Olympus
never entered except for Hermes and Iris who were Hades messengers.
Hades rarely left his realm, but when he did he used his hat to make him
invisible so he could do some observing. He mainly withdrew himself
from the under god’s and goddesses. The underworld was an underground
that was a home for spirits who died. The underworld lies deep beneath
the earth. There are very few entrances. The passage to the
underworld was supposedly one way only, through death. The underworld
existed so that the dead would have after life. Hades would have
to try and prevent people who died form leaving the underworld. That
was the most important thing that he had to do. To help stop this
from happening he was assisted by a three-headed dog. The name of
the dog was Cerebrus. Since the rule was that once you entered the
underworld you were not able to leave, very few people would visit Hades
causing him to be alone most of the time. Hades also had the role
of a good counselor. He would help the people who died with the transition
from living on earth to living amongst the dead. He thought them
to be quiet and listen. For what reason I do not know, because if
you are dead why do you need to listen or be quiet. The symbols of
the Greek god Hades are the helmet or cap, the planet Pluto because it
is do dark and cold, and the three-headed dog Cerebrus just to name a few.
Although he was the god of the underworld he was not mean and vicious like
he is portrayed in today’s society. He just was chosen to rule a
place where life is none existent.
Homer. “The Iliad.” Eds. Lawall, Sara and Maynard Mack. The Norton
World Literature. New York: W.W.Norton&Company, 2002.
Teucer was a Greek mortal who fought in the Trojan War. His father
Telamon, his mother was Hesione, and his half brother was Ajax the Great.
Unlike his half brother, Ajax, who fought with a sword, and brute strength,
Teucer fought with a bow and arrow. He is said to be the most famous archer
of the Trojan War and a great defender of the Greek camp.
King Agamemnon praised Teucer for killing many Trojans in the war. Agamemnon
placed Teucer first after only himself. This place was usually offered to
warriors on the front line showing their bravery such as Achilles and Ajax.
Agamemnon sees Teucer as a vital key in his plan to kill every male Trojan.
Teucer lives through the killing during the war. He is sidelined only after
Hector slings a rock at him and breaks his bowstring. This blow from the rock
sent Teucer to his knees.
After the death of Achilles, a dispute arose between Odysseus and Teucer’s
brother Ajax. They competed for the armor of Achilles. Only after hearing a
speech from both of the men, the Greek Assembly awards Odysseus the armor.
This act sent Ajax into a mad rage. He killed the herd of cattle, and then
After the war was over, Teucer went back to his home to see his father. After
hearing the story of Ajax, Telamon banished Teucer from the land of his
mother. Teucer was banished because his father thought he was responsible for
his brother’s death, and that he did not avenge his brother’s death. He was
also ashamed of the fact the Teucer fought with the bow and arrow, and not
with the sword. He thought this undermined the heroic code.
Teucer went to Cyprus after being banished from his homeland. When he
arrived, Cyprus was under attack by a group of savages no longer under the
control of the Trojans. He realized he wanted to help the Cypriots, and
gathered together a few followers. After sharing his military knowledge with
his men, they made the barbarians retreat, and finally leave the island.
Because of his heroic efforts, the Cypriots named offered him the throne. He
named it Salamis, and made it his new hometown.
Nestor’s place in the Iliad is important because he is a wise
counselor and because he motivates the plot. Some critics see him as a
ridiculous figure, and it cannot be denied that he is at times a comic
figure; but Nestor’s digressive tales frequently motivate a character to
perform some necessary action or reveal relevant cultural ideas. His tales
are usually served as examples for present situations.
The modern reader may see Nestor as talkative and unnecessary, or as a useless extra to the Achaian army; but the Greeks did not view him as such. He is the oldest man among the Achaians, and the Greeks saw advantages in old age. They believed that an elder man knew more, and here, the Achaians listen to the wisdom that old Nestor has gained through age. Consequently, Nestor’s tales and advice serve to challenge younger men to live up to heroic ideals that he himself upheld in the past.
Nestor challenges the Achaians to fight Hektor by saying to them that if he were younger, he would fight Hektor. To prove his former ability, he tells the story of his fight with Ereuthalion in the Pylian war, a circumstance similar to the present war. The tale prompts nine warriors to “stand forth” to fight Hektor. Here, again, the wisdom of Nestor is useful in that he has the men draw lots. The disorder caused by Hektor’s challenge has become ordered through Nestor’s example.
Nestor’s stories always have a purpose, and the story he tells Patroklos is intended to bring Achilles back into the war. It is a story of disorder brought about by Herakles and restored by Nestor’s efforts. The tale points out that the Achaians need a leader and that Achilles should return to battle to save the Achaians. While Nestor is unsuccessful in bringing Achilles back into the war, he convinces Patroklos that Achilles’ Myrmidon troops are necessary for the Achaians’ success.
However, Homer uses Nestor as more than a counselor, and he uses Nestor’s tales as more than a means to encourage the warriors to action. Nestor’s tales enrich the epic with stories of the past that connect the past to the present and reveal a connection of Greek life and therefore Greek literature. There are links to the Odyssey and the Iliad. Nestor becomes the transmitter of memory, which is critical for the immortality of their heroes.
In all of Nestor’s speeches, his purpose is to motivate an individual or a group to action. He first attempts to settle the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon. Second, he advises the Achaians to build a wall, and afterward, to bury their dead. Third, he suggests the spy mission. Fourth, he advises Agamemnon to send goodwill ambassadors to Achilles with gifts. And fifth, he inspires Patroklos to persuade Achilles to return to battle. He proves to be a wise counselor, and most of those whom he counsels recognize his wisdom.
During the funeral games, Achilles presents a gift to Nestor in respect for his old age. In turn, Nestor prays that Achilles enjoys a similar happiness. One critic suggests that through his respect for Nestor, Achilles is later able to recognize the value of Priam, Hektor’s father. Likewise, the early ability of Nestor seems to comparable Achilles’ ability. Nestor’s ability to soothe hard feelings, to use praise as a means for motivation, and to make tactful suggestions to a king are all acquired through experience. Only Odysseus equals Nestor in his ability to bring order out of disorder.
Aphrodite the Goddess
Aphrodite was a goddess in the book the Illiad. She was in rivalry with the
Greek goddess Athena. Aphrodite was the Trojan supporter, her father was Zeus
and Dione her mother. She was presented with the golden apple by Paris for the
exchange of Helens love. She struggles with Hera and Athena in this war while
she took the side of Paris and Her son. Diomedes wounds her during this war
and fight. Paris judged Aphrodite the fairest over Hera and after her daughter
Hebe was replaced as a cupbearer to the gods by a young boy that is a Trojan.
Aphrodite supports Paris’s judgement while she sided with the Trojans.
Although she was insignificant on the battlefield, she was successful in
convincing Ares, her lover and the god of war to help the Trojans.
Over the years artists have been amazed by the beauty and serenity of
Aphrodite, causing various representations of the guises and poses. She is
known as the Greek goddess of love, desire, beauty, fertility, the sea, and
vegetation. Aphrodite has many other mythological significants about her cause
the various artists to be astounded. Also many of the artists have tried to
depict various women as Aphrodite. One way the she has impacted so many of the
artists is that has been her birth by the sea, they depict not only in her
wonderful detail but also her surroundings with many influences to the work.
Aphrodite’s father is Zeus the supreme god and king of Olympus. Her siblings
include Athena her sister, and Ares her brother. Aphrodite also has a son,
Aeneas. In the story Aphrodite intervenes a battle to save her son Aeneas from
Diomedes, who previously wounded her and was now on the verge of killing
Aeneas. Aphrodite’s birth date, true age, and date of death are all
undetermined. The idea of the goddess is about 25 to 50 thousand years old.
Menelaus is the son of Atreus of Mycenae. His brother is
Agamemnon, the ruler of the Greeks during the Trojan War. Menelaus
was born a prince, but went into exile at an early age because his Uncle
Thyestes first son Aegisthus killed Atreus and gave the throne to his father.
Atreus lost his life because he tried to kill Thyestes under false pretenses.
With their uncle ruling, Menelaus and Agamemnon went into exile, living with King Polyphides I of Sicyon, then they stayed with King Oeneus II of Calydon. After growing older, the brothers decided to overthrow their uncle and re-claim the throne. King Tyndareus of Sparta helped them drive Thyestes I away to an island off the southern coast of the Peloponnesus called Cythera.
Once in power, the brothers claimed wives. Menelaus married Helen and received the kingdom of Sparta from her father, Tyndareus, after he passed away. When Menelaus and Helen were married, Tyndareus made Helen’s suitors each take an oath to defend and protect the man who Helen chose as her husband.
After ten years of marriage, Menelaus welcomed Paris, the prince of Troy, into his palace. Aphrodite, goddess of Love, had promised Helen to Paris and then made Helen fall in love with him. Several days passed and then Menelaus had to attend the funeral of his mother’s father in Crete. During his absence, Paris and Helen became lovers. Helen and Paris loaded most of the treasures of Sparta onto a ship a sailed away to Troy, abandoning her daughter Hermione who was only nine years old.
Menelaus returned to find that Helen had left with Paris. Menelaus and his brother Agamemnon raised an army to take Helen back by force if necessary. The army was also put together by Helen’s suitors following through with the oath that they had taken before Tyndareus died. Unfavorable winds kept the Greek army from sailing, but Menelaus convinced Agamemnon to kill his own daughter in order to change the winds. After the death of Agamemnon’s daughter, the army was able to sail to Troy. They fought for ten years after Paris refused to give up Helen. In the tenth year, Menelaus met Paris on the battle field. A truce would be formed; the two men would fight to the death, the victor claiming Helen as his wife. Menelaus almost killed Paris, but Aphrodite interfered and saved Paris. The truce was not held and fighting erupted again. Menelaus and many other soldiers entered into Troy hidden in
side of a giant wooden horse. After entering the city, Menelaus found Helen married to Deiphobus I, Paris had died. Menelaus tortured Deiphobus to death, cutting him into pieces, and then took Helen back to the ships to sail home to Sparta.
Parada, Carlos. 1997. http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Menelaus.html
Patroclus was the son of Menoetius, and best friend of Achilles.
Patroclus killed Clysonymus and had to flee so that he would not get in
trouble. Patroclus and his father went to live with Achilles and
his father Peleus. Patroclus helped the Greeks in the Trojan War.
When Achilles would not fight because of Agamemnon stealing his "prize"
Patroclus took his armor and went fight in his place. While Patroclus
was fighting he was killed by Hector, the Trojan Prince and brother of
Paris, with help from Apollo. After Achilles received the news of
Patroclus' death he decided not to rest until he had killed Hector.
After he killed Hector Achilles did not want to bury Patroclus' body but
he got a sign from Patroclus to give him a proper burial. The proper
burial consisted of sacrificing horses, dogs, and twelve Trojan captives
and then he was burned and put in an golden urn and then the games began.
Achilles organized an Olympic competition in honor of his friend Patroclus.
These games consisted of boxing, javelin throw, wrestling, a foot race.
an archery contest, and also a duel.
Ares is the Greek god of war born to Zeus and Hera. His
symbol is the spear. It is said he carried and bloodstained spear
and his throne was covered in skin. His worship began in Thracia
a region known for fierce people. He has many brothers and sister
but his favorite is Eris. She is the goddess of strife and is always
by his side. Ares has two sons Deimos and Phobos, which, stay with
him as well. Ares is very tall and handsome but also very vain whereas
Hephaestus his brother is kind. In the Iliad Ares is on the side of the
Trojans along with Aphrodite.
Ares rode into battle with his two horses Flame and Terror pulling his chariot When Ares would hear the sound of battle he would become very happy and a smile would cross his face. He would then put his armor on and rush into battle. He did not really care who won or lost as long as blood was shed. Hades the god of the underworld sometimes accompanied Ares into battle. Each time Ares was wounded he would go to Mt. Olympus and his father Zeus would heal him. Seeing his son carry on this way angered Zeus. Ares brother, Herakles, killed Kyknos another one of Ares sons. Zeus loved Herakles and would not let Ares harm him even though he killed his son.
Most other gods despised Ares but Aphrodite loved him. In battle one day Pallas Athene knocked Ares senseless and Aphrodite helped him off the battlefield. Ares also helped Aphrodite defend her son Aineias from certain death. It is also said that Ares and Aphrodite were more than friends even though she was married. The twins Phobos and Deimos were said to be hers along with a goddess also. Through all of this Ares was never married though he fathered many children.
After the fall of Troy, Hecuba was captured and made a slave by
the Achaeans. There are different versions of Hecubas death. The three
scenarios behind her death are that one, she was stoned by the Greeks because
they were angry about her killing Polymer, second, she jumped overboard
off Odysseus’ ship, and third, she was turned into a dog.
Agamemnon: King of the Argives
According to multiple sources Agamemnon, king or the Argives,
seems to be more of a character in epic poems and plays than a historical
figure. Although repeated searches kept identifying Agamemnon as
a character in The Iliad and Aeschelus, facts and historical theories were
eventually discovered in brief paragraphs throughout the internet world
reinforcing the idea of his realistic existence.
Depending on which text is referred to Agamemnon was king of Mycenae or Argos. In most accounts, regardless of geographic location, he was a member of the house of Atreus, his father, with his brother Menelaus. Agamemnon gained his fame when he was assigned the siege on Troy to bring back Menelaus’ wife, Helen. According to Greek mythology, the winds were not favorable for this voyage. He was advised to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia, to the goddess, Artemis. Supposedly this sacrifice would appease Artemis and she would forgive Agamemnon for claiming to be a better hunter than her in turn creating an ideal atmosphere for sailing. Agamemnon is portrayed as being a very pompous leader. This is especially exemplified in The Iliad when he angered Achilles before the attack on Troy.
Agamemnon returned home at the end of the Trojan War with the daughter of King Priam of Troy as his mistress. While he was away his wife, Clytemnestra, became a lover to his cousin, Aegisthus. Upon his return Clytemnestra and Aegisthus plotted his murder mainly to avenge the sacrifice of her daughter. After Agamemnon’s death his son, Orestes, and possibly his other daughter, Electra, killed the people responsible for his death.
There are many variations of the story of Agamemnon’s life. Truth and myth seem to be closely linked. Some accounts seem to suggest that Agamemnon never made it home to Mycenae. Others seem to imply that Iphigenia was never sacrificed, and that Artemis replaced her with a deer. However, that would confuse the reason for Clytemnestra’s betrayal of Agamemnon. It appears that despite the facts or lack of them, the story is still as entertaining as any soap opera on television.
Thetis is an important character in the book the Iliad. Thetis parents
named Nerus and Doris. Nerus and Doris had fifty daughters, and these
daughters were called the Nereids, or the daughters of Nerus. Thetis was not a
mortal she was a sea nymph and her father was a god of the sea. Thetis was
given to a mortal man, for his undying devotion to the gods on Olympus, named
Peleus. Together they had a son named Achilles, who will later become a very
important role in the Trojan War. Later on Thetis leaves Peleus and go back to
live with her father in the Aegean Sea. The fate of Achilles was known only by
his mother. He could either return to his father or die happy yet forgotten or
he could die at troy and be remembered forever as a hero.
She first appears in the Iliad when her son Achilles calls for her to tell
her about his troubles with Agamemnon. Her son asks her to let Troy win so his
pride will be saved. Thetis goes to Zeus and begs for him to grant her sons
request. Zeus agrees and the battle continues. To protect her son in battle,
Thetis provided Achilles with armor made by Hephaestus, the smith of the gods.
But during the war at Troy, Achilles was angered by Agamemnon, he refused to
fight. Instead, he gave his armor to his friend Patroclus. Patroclus was
killed as his press the attack to the walls of Ilion. The most brutal fighting
of the war was for the armor of Achilles and the body of Patroclus. The
disgrace to his friend’s body and the theft of his armor brought Achilles into
battle, but not before Thetis could persuade Hephaestus to forge new armor for
her, soon to be immortalized, son. When Achilles strode into battle with his
new armor, the Trojans fled in terror. It was obvious that he was protected by
the gods and the background of his lineage all thanks to his mother Thetis.
After Achilles had his revenge for Patroclus, his mother Thetis and her
sisters all mourned openly and cast a mist over the body of Patroclus.
In the Iliad, Cassandra was the most beautiful daughter out of twelve.
Her parents are Queen Hecuba and King Priam of Troy. Cassandra means crying
wolf or she who entangles men. She was also known as Alexandra the
helper of men. Cassandra was like the sun; she caught the eye of her god.
The god that was captivated by her beauty was Apollo.
Apollo is the most handsome god there was. He is the god of the sun and he is the son of Zeus. Apollo liked Cassandra and wanted her intimately. So, he then told her if you will sleep with me then I will give you a prophecy. She agreed. So, he gave her the prophecy of being able to tell the future. When she got this she would be able to tell everything. But, the only thing was now that she had the prophecy she had to have sex with him. She told him no and Apollo said that he was going to add something to the prophecy. Apollo kissed her and added that when she would talk everything would be true but no one would believe what she was saying. She liked Apollo as a teacher just not as a lover.
When Cassandra would tell her people, the Trojans, about their future’ they thought she was crazy. This was only because of what Apollo had done to her. The biggest thing that she told was about the war. She had went to her brother Paris and told him not to go to Greece. She told him that they would lose the war. Also, she mentioned that there was going to be a wooden horse that they would think was not armed. She told him that and he did not believe her at all. While they were in Greece, the wooden horse came out filled with fighting armed soldiers. The surprise attack cost the Trojans the war.
At this point Cassandra was sent to Mycenae and taken captive. She was now a concubine of the Greek King Agamemnon. She was also a slave for him. Clytemnestra, Agamemnon’s wife, and Aegisthus killed Cassandra and Agamemnon. It was said that Clytemnestra killed him because he had an affair with Aegisthus. After Cassandra died people did believe that she was telling the truth and they began to respect her. In Laconia she is known as Alexandra.
One of the main characters in the Iliad is Paris. Paris makes some unwise decisions that affect everyone around him. Paris puts his blind trust in the power of love over the power of strength and bravery.
Paris is the son of Priam, who is the son of Laomedon, descendent of Tros, and Dardanus, the son of Zeus. Paris’ parents, Priam and Hecuba, are the king and queen of the mighty city of Troy. Upon Paris’ birth, Hecuba dreamed that he would bring the destruction of Troy. Priam and Hecuba ordered Agelaus to take Paris away so Agelaus raised him as his own son away from Priam’s kingdom. After many years, Paris returned to Troy and took his place in Troy with his family. Among his many siblings, Paris is the brother of man-killing Hector. The Trojans hail Hector for his bravery and agility on the battlefield. Hector is the perfect hero, and he fights alongside his fellow Trojans in battle. The Acheans, or Greeks, despise Paris because he stole Helen away from Menelaus while he was a guest at Menelaus’ palace. “Menelaus entertained him for nine days, but then he had to leave for Crete in order to attend the funeral of his grandfather Catreus […] Menelaus then set sail, after having ordered Helen to furnish the guests with all they required, which she did in all details (Parada).” Helen furnished Paris with much more than Menelaus thought, and she ended up secretly falling in love and going back to Troy with Paris.
Paris did not think about anyone but himself, and in the process of his blind show of love to Helen, he started the Trojan War. Upon bringing Helen back to Troy, Paris enraged Menelaus and battered his honor. Hector disapproved of Paris’ actions from the beginning but never forced him to return Helen to Menelaus. However, all of the other Trojans received Helen as a prize and thought it was worthwhile to fight for her. When Menelaus and Agamemnon, Menelaus’ brother, arrived in Troy, they agreed to settle the war with a duel between Paris and Menelaus. Paris, who was more concerned with love than the Trojan War, broke the agreement and the Achaeans attacked Troy with full force. “Paris regarded his own judgment quite fit. For love, he reasoned, was greater than power or a brave heart (Parada).”
Paris condemned the lives of thousands of innocent Trojans when he took Helen from Sparta. He offended and enraged the Greek kings, and he was unprepared for the consequences that resulted. He thought the power of love could save him from the strength and bravery of the deadly Achaeans.
Parada, Carlos. Greek Mythology Link. <http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML /Paris.html>.
Hephaestus was one of many children born to the Olympian gods
Zeus and Hera. It is believed, however, that Zeus is not the actual
father of Hephaestus. The idea behind this is that Hera was upset
with Zeus for having an affair so she conceived Hephaestus by herself.
Hephaestus was the god of fire and a skilled smith during the Bronze Age.
He was the only god to be physically ugly and either by birth or by incident
he became lame. There are two accounts explaining how he became lame.
The first is that Hera was unhappy that she birthed an ugly child so she
threw him off of Mount Olympus. Hephaestus fell for an entire day before
falling into the sea and being rescued by nymphs. He was taken to
a nearby island called Lemnos where he was taken care of by the people
there. In retaliation for Hera’s action, Hephaestus crafted a special
throne, which was delivered to Mount Olympus. When she was seated
in the throne she became imprisoned by it. It was Dionysus who was
responsible for her release by intoxicating Hephaestus and carrying him
back to Mount Olympus. Hephaestus released Hera after he was given
Aphrodite to be his wife. The second of the stories is that Zeus
and Hera became entangled in an argument during which Hephaestus took the
side of Hera. Zeus, being unhappy about this, threw Hephaestus off
of Mount Olympus. He fell for nine days before landing on the island Lemnos.
In either account, Hephaestus, made Lemnos his home on which he built a
palace and his trade shop. He used the fire from volcanoes as the
source for his metal work. He was responsible for crafting many unique
pieces of metalwork. One of these pieces was described in great detail
in Homer’s The Iliad. During the war between the Trojans and the
Achaeans, Achilles, a great soldier for the Achaeans, gave his armor to
his best friend Patroclus. Later in the war Patroclus was killed
and the Trojans confiscated Achilles’ armor. It was Hephaestus, by
persuasion of Thetis, Achilles’ mother, who crafted Achilles an incredible
set of armor. Hephaestus agreed to craft Achilles’
this set of armor because Thetis helped him when he was thrown from Mount
Olympus. Without this armor Achilles would not have been able to
return to battle. Armor during this time could be very expensive.
Hephaestus also helped Achilles when the river god Axius tried to kill
him. Hephaestus dried up Axius’ rivers with a great fire. There are
many myths surrounding the life of Hephaestus but his creations, especially
Achilles’ armor helped change the outcome of the war between the Trojans
and the Achaeans.
Poseidon is a Greek God. Poseidon is the fifth of six children
to Cronus and Rhea. His brothers and sisters are Hestia, Demeter,
Hera, Hades, and Zeus. Poseidon is the god of the seas and was a very popular
god. He controlled the earthquakes from his domain in the sea.
Poseidon was known as "the Earth Shaker." He was known in mythology
as an angry god and as a fighter.
In addition to him being known as a fighter, he was also known as a lover. Poseidon had five lovers, that we know of. One of the five was Aethra, who was a mortal woman that was the mother of the legendary Greek hero Theseus: and it was said that Poseidon was the father. Another one of Poseidon's lovers was Amphitrite, who caught his eye, and it was said that she was Poseidon's wife. Demeter was another lover to Poseidon. She transformed herself into a mare to avoid Poseidon's advances. In finding this out, Poseidon turned himself into a stallion and they united in this way. Poseidon had an affair with Medusa. In legend, Medusa was a very beautiful female, who made Poseidon fall for her and he ravished her in the temple of Athena. In ding this, Medusa was punished. The last of Poseidon's lovers, that we know of, who was a mortal, named Tyro. He wanted to be with her so he disguised himself as a river, they had an affair, and this resulted in the birth of twins, Neleus and Pelias.
Every god has a symbol which represents them. Poseidon's symbols are the trident, the horse, and the bull.
Poseidon was known as Neptune in Roman mythology.
In the Iliad by Homer there are many characters that may or may not
be considered major depending on the viewpoint of the reader. While
the characters may not be considered major finding information on the names
mentioned in each book of the novel is. The character chosen by me
in terms of reaching characters in the Iliad was that of Bellerophon.
Bellerophon’s character in the novel did not play a “major part” as did others such as Zeus, Achilles, or Hector, but his character was significant in the small portion it had in the story. According to research Bellerophon is from Corinth and is the son of King Glaucus and Eurymede, and grandson of Sisyphus. Bellerophon was said to be adventurous as a child and due to his ambitious self-motivated personality he set out for great adventure. During his travel for adventure he meet and became friends with Proteus. Though Proteus seemed like a good friend he was indeed jealous of Bellerophon and sought out to cause his death. While seeking adventure Bellerophon heard of a monster that was terrorizing the city of Lycia and wrote to Proteus concerning this matter. Due to the envy by Proteus he immediately consulted his father in law and requested that Bellerophon be killed. The Kind of Lycia did not think it was fair to kill him so instead he sent Bellerophon on what he believed to be a battle that will end his life. Receiving help from Polyendus and capturing Pegasus by following through with the help of the gods on how to kill Chimera, Bellerophon defeated the monster. To the surprise of the king who never believed Bellerophon could live after fighting a monster with the hed of a lion and tail of a dragon, some other form of punishment had to be done. Upon completion with the battle of the monster Bellerophon became famous and received great gifts one of them being the daughter of King Iobates. Because he was loved , had defeated the monster, and received a wife with the help of his steed Pegasus Bellerophon became over confident. His over confidence made him show off his glory by acting as if he was undefeatable and had the powers of the god. This act caused him to be pitied amongst the gods and in return he lost his steed and fame.
Pride is said to be the downfall of many great people and in fact was the downfall of a hero, Bellerophon. Due to the over zealous act of pride a hero was left to feel alone and in constant search for that which could have been his glory.
Aeneas was born from the mortal union of Anchises and the goddess
Aphrodite. Aeneas was conceived when Aphrodite came to Anchises in
the form of a beautiful maiden, saying that she was the mortal daughter
of Otreus. Anchises was taken by desire and made love with Aphrodite,
who later revealed her true identity. Anchises feared that the gods would
destroy him for sleeping with a goddess, but Aphrodite assured him that
he had great favor with the gods. Aphrodite also made Anchises promise
that he would say their child was the offspring of a nymph, who Aphrodite
hope would rear the child until he would be restored to his father.
Anchises was killed because he had consumed too much wine, and told his
friends that he was the lover of the goddess, which caused him to be struck
by Zeus. During the Trojan War, Aeneas had been driven from Mount Ida by
Achilles. During the Trojan War, Aeneas was also wounded by
Diomedes. When Aeneas was wounded he could have died if his mother
Aphrodite had not come to his rescue. Aphrodite, who also had been
wounded by Diomedes , would have died if Apollo would not have taken
over. Once Apollo had taken over, Aeneas was removed from the battle
to the temple Pergamus. At the temple, Artemis healed Aeneas and
made him even stronger. A phantom of Aeneas appeared until the real
Aeneas was able to rejoin in the fighting. There is a lot of uncertainty
about Aeneas death. Many people believe Aeneas disappeared during
a battle against the army of Mezentius. However, many people believe
that he died in Thrace without ever reaching Italy. Another belief
of Aeneas death is that Aphrodite asked Zeus to make Aeneas immortal. As
a result Zeus granted Aphrodite’s request and all of Aeneas’s mortal body
parts was washed always by the river god Numicius. Aeneas was later made
a god and was worshipped under the name of Indiges.