1.
David Wilkerson


August 31, 2004
English 230

Priam
Priam is the last king of Troy. He is described by Homer as a kind but physically weak old man. Although Helen is the cause of the Trojan war, he does not blame her and loves her as a daughter.  He does not become a major  character in The Iliad until the end of the story. His son Hector is the major force for the Trojan army. Paris, another of his children, was the cause of  the war which lasted ten years. Although he manages to keep the Greeks out of the city of Troy for years, when they finally infiltrate the walls; Priam is killed. The son of LaomedonPriam became king after Heracles killed his father and brothers during the first sacking of Troy.Priam's first wife was Arisbe, daughter of the king of PercoteMerops. He then married Hecuba, his main wife. It is believed that Priam had nearly fifty children. Among these  children were Hector, Paris, Deiphobus,HelenusPolydrus, and Cassandra. Hecuba had a vision, interpreted by a seer, which said Paris will cause the destruction of Troy. By the time he is older, though, the vision is forgotParis caused the Trojan war when he took Helen from her husband andPriam
would not return her because his son did not want to give her up. His other son, Hector, was the leader and best warrior of the Trojan army. Priam is killed on the last day of the Trojan war. He is killed by Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles in the middle of the city.  As the last king of TroyPriam, defended his city the best he could. Although, the war could have been avoided by giving Helen back to her husband. This shows the love he has for his children and that he would even go to war over them. He still loved Paris and Helen even though they caused the downfall of Troy.


2.
Francisco Ariza
9/5/04
English 230

Phoenix
 The story of the Iliad is about the final year of the Trojan War. The Trojan War was between the Greeks and the Trojans over the kidnapping of queen Helen that lasted ten years. One of the Geeks bravest and toughest fighters was Achilles. Achilles was the son of a mortal man and of the sea nymph, Thetis. Achilles stops fighting for the Greeks because Agamemnon took away his prize, Briseis. Fearing of defeat to the Trojans, Agamemnon summonsAjax, Odysseus, and Phoenix to persuade Achilles into rejoining the battle by means of offering gifts and the return of BriseisPhoenix is first mentioned in book nine line two hundred of the Iliad. Phoenix was chosen for the group because he was a tutor to Achilles when he was a boy and was more of a father figure to him. The story says that Zeus loves Phoenix and so he would be a very vital part of the group to convince Achilles to return to battle. While at Achilles’ encampment, Phoenix gave the most passionate speech of the three. The speech starts on line 527 and tells about the story of Meleager. The purpose for this speech was to make Achilles come to his senses in the fact that his country is at war and he needs to join. Achilles will not accept the offer made by the three and does not return to fight for the Greeks and therefore their attempts were in vain.


3.
Ashley Wahl
ENGL 232-01
September 8, 2004
Apollo: God of Archery, Music, Disease & Healing
Apollo, the son of Zeus and Leto, is the mythological god of archery and music, and of disease and healing.He is the twin brother to Artemis, goddess of archery and the hunt.In the Iliad he is called the “Sminthian,” the mouse god, although it is unknown whether it was because he protected or destroyed mice.As the first god to appear in the Iliad, Apollo takes the side of the Trojans after Agamemnon, commander and king of the Achaeans, insults one of Apollo’s high priest named Chryses.Chryses goes to Agamemnon and begs of him to return his daughter, Chrysies, whom was taken captive by Agamemnon and Achilles during a raid.Chryses is threatened and sent away belittled by Agamemnon.Learning of this insult to one of his priest, Apollo showered the Achaean troops with arrows for three days.Apollo only stopped the plague after Agamemnon made the proper sacrifice of one hundred sacred bulls and returned Chrysies to her father.During the course of the battles between the Trojans and the Achaeans, Apollo entered on several occasions to aid, assist, and give glory to the great Trojan warrior Hector.At one point, when Hector is wounded by Aias, Apollo heals him enough the push the Achaeans back to their ships.He also aided Hector in the killing of Achilles best friend Patroclus.Although Apollo greatly admired and loved Hector, he could not save him from the Fates.As Zeus turned his back on Hector, because it was his fate to die at the hands of Achilles in Book XXII, Apollo must also turn away from him as well.As a god, Apollo has the power to change the present, however he cannot change the destiny of the mortals he admires and appreciates.

4.
Kristy Burgess
English 230-01
08 September 2004
Briseis
Faithful yet Courageous

What if you lived in a society where women were viewed as mere objects?What if a woman’s ability to earn respect in order to have an equal partnership with her husband was unmentionable?Despite how much a woman loved her husband, she could be auctioned off as if she were a slave.During the Trojan War, women appeared to be captives of the fighting men, just as slaves were held captives to their masters.Briseis was a woman who, despite her inability to be viewed as an equal to man, portrayed herself to be faithful and courageous during the roughest parts of her life.

Briseis, a Trojan mortal, lived a life full of happiness without fear or regret, until one day all her beloved possessions and family members banished from existence.Achilles, a great Greek warrior during the Trojan War, invaded Briseis’ residency, Lyrnessus, and murdered her husband, Mynes (Mortal Women of the Trojan War 1).The mercenary, Achilles, seized Briseis as a war prize enabling him to have her as a companion and a lover.After Briseis and Achilles formed an unbreakable bond of fidelity for each other, their lifestyles suddenly became disrupted.Agamemnon, leader of the Greeks, demanded Achilles to release Briseis into his possession (1).This act of depriving Achilles of his honor provoked him to relieve himself of duty in the war.Briseis remained courageous during this time of turmoil where her lover refused to participate in battle because she knew that one day he would return for her.When the Greeks realized their failure on the battlefield without Achilles, Agamemnon bribed Achilles with the return of Briseis.Briseis tried to persuade Achilles to accept Agamemnon’s offer by declaring:

Because of me your anger was moved because of me let it be ended, and let me be the cause and measure of your sadness… For my words fall in weight for nothing.However neither am I offended nor have I carried myself as a wife [because I have been] more often summoned, a slave, into my master’s bed.I remember a certain captive called me mistress.“Slavery,” I said, “you add the burden of a name.”(3)

Achilles refused Briseis’ proposal for him to fight in the war causing her to remain a captive of Agamemnon.Fortunately, for Briseis, Achilles returned to the battlefield when his friend, Patroclus’, life was snatched away from him, which allowed Briseis to escape her turmoil and to be declared Achilles’ woman once again.

Briseis’ ability to acquire the characteristics of courage and faithfulness allowed her to survive through turmoil and hardship.She tried to earn the respect of Achilles by holding little complaint as his stubborn nature pushed him a little farther away from her.Achilles soon realized, after falling in love with Briseis, that she was not defined as just an object.Briseis labeled herself as a wife, a lover, and a true companion which allowed the people within her society to view her as a remarkable woman.

Works Cited

“Mortal Women of the Trojan War.”Yahoo.1-6.26 August 2004.

<Http: www.stanford.edu/~plomio/briseis.html>.


5.
TheodoreLavergne
September 6, 2004
English 230 Assignment 1
HERA

Hera, pronounced HEE ruh, was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea.Her husband and brother was Zeus.Hera and Zeus had three children, Hephaestus who was the smith-god, Hebe who was the goddess of youth, and Ares, the god of war.Hera’s children were not conceived with a man.Instead they were conceived by eating lettuce or slapping her had to the ground.Hera was the queen of the Olympian gods and she was the goddess of marriage and birth.Her sacred animals were the cow and peacock.Hera was constantly jealous of her husband Zeus’ affairs and seeks to punish his mistress and his children.One instance was with Zeus’ lover Io.Zeus turned Io into a black and white heifer soHera could not find her.Hera heard of this and sent Argos Panoptes, which was all seeing, to guard Io and keep Zeus away.In return Zeus had Hermes kill Argos.Even after all this distress, Hera still wanted vengeance, so she sent a gad fly to constantly torment Io in her cow state and it drove her to the end of the earth.Still today in the tails of her sacred animal, the peacock, you can see eyes of Argos.

Hera is the most beautiful of all the immortals.She was even more beautiful than Aphrodite.Hera’s great power was thather virginity is restored each year.This was accomplished by her bathing in the well, canathus.With all of Hera’s beauty and stubbornness, Zeus sometimes found it hard to stand up to her.Zeus would sometimes get mad and place anvils on her feet; this made her unable to move.Zeus would then place her on Mt.Olympus until his anger passed.

Hera was a great patron of the Greeks; she was upset over the Trojan’s judgement of Pais.Her husband, on the other had, was sympathetic towards the Trojans.In The Iliad, Hera motivated Achilles to assemble the Greeks so that they could deal with the plague that was placed on them.She was on the side of the Greeks and wanted to help them in any way she could.Further on in The Iliad, Hera used deception to help the Greeks.Hera approached Aphrodite under false pretenses and tricked her into giving her an enchanted breastband that had the powers of love and longing.Hera then visited the embodiment of Sleep.She asked that he place Zeus into sleep, and as a reward for doing so he could marry one of her daughters.Sleep disguised himself as a bird and perched in a tree near Zeus.Hera then appeared to Zeus and he was engulfed with passion for Hera and they made love.Zeus quickly fell asleep and Hera went to Poseidon, god of the sea, and let him know that Zeus was fast asleep and that he could now help the Greeks be victorious.

Hera was a beautiful and powerful woman. She found it necessary to live in a world of deception and constant vengeance.She relied on trickery and fear to have people aid her in getting what she wanted.Her beauty was an advantage and she used it with a “no holds barred” attitude to gain anything and everything she wanted. 


6.
Ryan Carlton
English 230
9/08/04
Calchas
Calchas is an important soothsayer that can be found in books one through nineteen. Even though we don’t see much of him, he plays a very important role in The Iliad.Calchas was the most famous soothsayer among the Greeks at the time of the Trojan War. 

Calchas was the son of Thestor (a priest of Apollo) and the most famous soothsayer of his time. Some say he was responsible for the fall of Troy. He told the Greeks that Achilles was necessary for victory in the Trojan War, and that they would take Troy within nine years. This prophecy came to him when he witnessed a water snake devour a nest of nine sparrows, and Calchas interpreted the sign to mean that it would take nine years before the Achaeans would finally take Troy. Odysseus uses Calchas prophecy to restore the Achaeans confidence after Agamemnon lies about giving up the war. Calchas reluctantly offered his services to Agamemnon because he feared retribution. Calchas revealed that the plague was a vengeful and strategic move by Chryses and Apollo. He tells Agamemnon that the only way Apollo will lift the curse is if he returns Chryseis. Agamemnon does so and the curse is lifted. He told Agamemnon that Artemis was displeased with him and he needed to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigeneia, to appease her. He does so and Artemis is appeased. Calchas also advised the Greeks to construct a huge wooden horse which the Greeks took Troy with. The idea was for troops to hide inside the horse and jump out when the Trojans were drunk and sleeping and kill them all. The horse sat outside the gates of Troy for two days .The Trojans thought the horse was a gift from the gods. They brought the horse into the city and had a huge party. When every one had passed out or went to sleep, the Greeks jumped out of the horse and burned the city. This won the war for the Greeks. 

It had been predicted that Calchas should die when he met his superior in divination. The prophecy was fulfilled when Calchas met Mopsus after the war. He was beaten in a trial of soothsaying, and committed suicide.



7.
Korie Taylor
September 7, 2004

English 230

 Helen, The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships

            As ridiculous as it may sound, Helen of Sparta was born from an egg.  The egg is said to be laid by Leda, the Queen of Sparta, with Zeus being the father.  Some believe that the egg was that of Nemesis.  Others say that the egg from which Helen hatched fell from the moon.  Nonetheless, Helen, an immortal being, emerged from the egg and was raised by Leda.
            When Helen was a young girl of eleven or so, she was kidnapped by King Theseus of Athens, who thought she was extremely beautiful, and taken to Aphindna, a small city north of Athens.  Helen’s brothers, the Dioscuri, and an army of men, came to rescue her.  When they couldn’t find her they resorted to war.
            Helen was eventually rescued and returned home.  While being held by King Theseus, he took her virginity and impregnated her with a child by the name of Iphigeneia.  For the sake of maintaining her virgin status, the child was given to her sister Clytemnestra, whom Helen served as a slave for, before the returned home.
            When Helen reached a certain age many suitors came to win her hand.  Helen chose Menelaus, and marriage was arranged.  During the course of their marriage they were invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, the parents of Achilles.  All gods were invited to this wedding except for Eris.  In anger he threw one of the Golden Apples into the party, to be given as a prize of beauty to the fairest of the goddesses.  Paris was appointed by Zeus to choose.  He chose Aphrodite, who had offered the bribe of Helen! ’s hand.
            Paris came to Sparta to fetch Helen.  He seduced her and she left with him, abandoning her daughter and husband and taking some of their belongings.  They boarded a ship and sailed away to Troy, where they married.  Helen denies that any of this took place.  Nevertheless, the war ensued, and Paris was killed.  Paris’ brother Deiphobus 1 married Helen and was captured by Odysseus shortly after.
            After the war Helen returned home to Sparta with Menelaus, having killed Deiphobus 1.  They wandered many Mediterranean’s for eight long years.  When Menelaus died, Helen went to stay with a friend.  She was seized and hung from a tree.
            Helen, the cause of the Trojan War, and one of the most beautiful goddesses, led a very confusing life.  Some say that Helen helped the Achaeans during the war.  Even so, the Trojans and Greeks all along disliked her. 


8.
Joe Neal
September 7, 2004
English 230 Assignment 1
Andromache
 The Iliad is a book written by Homer that involves plenty of different characters throughout its story that cover a portion of the Trojan War. One of these characters is Andromache. In this paper I will inform you about the tough life she has had to endure. She goes through many ups and downs all through her life.
 Andromache was the daughter of Eetion, king of Thebae on Cilicia, and the wife of a Trojan soldier named Hector, the son of Priam the king of Troy. Andromache is referred to in many sources as being the epitome of the loyal wife. During that point in time women were known to serve their husbands in any way that they would be asked to do and she did. Andromache also had two sons for Hector named Astyanax, also referred to as Scamandrus and Laodamas. In the Iliad Hector was killed in a battle that involved himself and Achilles. The result of the death left Andromache widowed. Now this is very interesting. Earlier in the war Achilles also killed her father and her seven brothers while she was already married to Hector where they were already residing in Troy. After Achilles killed Hector, he gave Andromache to his son Pyrrhus, also referred to as Neoptolemus, as a prize from war. The two would settle in Epeirus where they would have four children. Not short after Andromache was widowed for a second time when Pyrrhus leaves her in Epeirus to go and marry Hermione in Phthia. Now Hermione was already engaged to Orestes so stabbed Pyrrus therefore leaving Andromache widowed once again.
 Throughout Andromache’s life time she was never able to get settled in one place. For this fact she was a very strong woman. Every time she got attached to someone and started to love them they were suddenly taken away from her. No matter what happened to her she never gave up and that is remarkable. Andromache is a very strong and respectable woman and should be praised for being such a outstanding person.


9.
Barry Stanley – W0208485
English 230
9-7-04

ZEUS

 Zeus was considered by the Greeks to be the god of gods.  He was the son of Cronus and Rhea. He was the husband of Hera and was the father to five children: Ares, Athena, Aphrodite, Helen, and Sarpedon. His five siblings were Demeter, Hades, Hestia, Hera, and Poseidon.
 It had been prophesied to Cronus, Zeus’ father, that he would have one of his children take over everything he had power over. Cronos decides to eat all of his children to stop this from happening. His wife tricked him when it came time for him to eat Zeus, and she gave him a rock instead. This made him vomit all of Zeus’ siblings up. This is also about the time that Zeus became more powerful this his father.
 After Zeus defeated his father, he and his two brothers, Poseidon and Hades, divided all of creation among the three of them. Poseidon took the sea as his kingdom. Hades took the underworld as his kingdom, and Zeus took the sky as his kingdom. This is why Zeus is sometimes known as the god of the sky. Zeus was given the most authority of the three of them, and ruled from Mount Olympus.  At the beginning of his reign as the sky god, Zeus lived in the upper atmosphere and Mount Olympus. From this, the Greeks thought that Zeus controlled the lightening. They believed that when Zeus was mad he threw lightening bolts. If someone was struck by lightening, it was believed that he must have in someway done something against the Greeks since Zeus was the “Protector of the Greeks.”
 Zeus was honored in different ways in ancient Greece. One of these were the Olympic games that took place every four years.  Also, shrines were built in his honor throughout Greece. The most important of these shrines was in Dodona.



10.

Gloria Thomas

    English 230

    September 7, 2004

    Idomeneus

     Idomeneus was the king of Crete and the leader of the Cretan troops during the Trojan War.  Idomeneus was the grandson of Minos.  He was fighting
    on the side of the Trojans.  He is famous for being a great warrior in battle.   He fought hard in the battle against the Acheans.  He fought until the battle
    was at the end.  After the strength of the Trojans fell, Idomeneus returns home.  On the way towards home, Idomeneus runs into this terrible storm.  To
    escape the storm, Idomeneus makes a promise to the god Poseidon.  The promise was to sacrifice the first living thing that he saw when he reached Crete
    safely.  After arriving of Crete, the first living thing to greet Idomeneus was his own son. Idomeneus did not want to kill his son.  It was just a
    coincidence that his son was the first living thing that greeted him as he departed the ship.  As he promised, Idomeneus sacrifices his son to the god.
    This act angered the gods, so they exiled Idomeneus to Calabria in Italy for eternity.



11.
Molly Sisson
September 7, 2004
English 230
Assignment 1
Hector
Prince of Troy
 Hector is the son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba.  He has a brother named Paris and is married to Andromache.  Hector and Andromache have a son named Astayanax.  Hector is the primary leader of the Trojan forces.  He is the last hope for Troy.  Hector is the Trojan’s best fighter, and rallies the Trojan army many times.  Andromache begs Hector to refrain from fighting on the behalf of his son, as well as her.  Hector makes a moving speech, the last time he will see his wife, where he talks about facing destiny and not hiding from it.  The love between Andromache and Hector is very strong, but eventually she cannot keep Hector from his destiny.  It is Hector killing Patroclus that brings Achilles back into the war.  Patroclus was dressed in Achilles’ armor and Hector thought he was killing Achilles.  This dooms Hector, because Achilles becomes intensely wrathful in his desire for revenge.  Hector bravely faces Achilles instead of running like his brother often did, and is successful for a short time, with the help of Aphrodite.  However, she tricks Hector into thinking he is protected and invincible.  When she abandons him, Achilles is free to kill him.  Hector falls violently at the hands of Achilles and his body is treated with disrespect after his death.  Achilles attaches Hector’s body to the back of his chariot and rides around the city of Troy with his body dragging behind him.
 
 


12.
Landon Thomas
    English 230
    September 7, 2004
    Assignment 1

    Achilles

     Achilles was a great warrior with incredible strength and quickness. He is been the greatest warrior imaginable. Achilles completely changed the Trojan
    War when he decided to leave, and after many years come back. For a war that took ten years to finish, to think that one man could have so drastically
    changed the outcome is hard to believe. But just the thought that Achilles was on the battlefield was enough confidence for the Greeks to win the war. This
    is a big reputation for any man to handle. To know that people are that afraid of you and think that highly of you. This is also the reputation that got
    Achilles in trouble.
     Achilles was a man to admire. He had a close relationship with the gods, he was the greatest warrior, and he was noble. Okay, maybe he was not noble.
    Everything that Achilles did was not to benefit the Greek army but to help him. Achilles was truly the total opposite of a team player. His pride always
    seems to be his downfall. An argument with commander Agamemnon kept him out of the war, and even after several apologies,  he still did not fight. Achilles
    did not rejoin the war until his friend Patroclus, who Achilles had sent to fight in his place, was killed. And even then the only reason that Achilles
    decided to fight was to seek revenge on Trojan Hector, who had killed his friend.
     Throughout the story Achilles also seems to be a man who has little self-control. He seems to have trouble controlling his pride and the rage from
    his pride being injured. He becomes so consumed in his anger that he abandons his fellow soldiers and wishes that the Trojans kill them. Partly because he
    wanted to be the missing link.


13.
Staci Picone
    September 8, 2004
    English 230
    Assignment 1

                                   The Muses

     The Muses are the Greek goddesses who preside over the arts and sciences and inspire those who excel in these subjects.  The Muses are daughters of Zeus
    who is the king of the gods, and Mnemosyne who is the goddess of memory.  They were born at the Pieria at the foot of Mount Olympus.  The Muses were raised my their nurse Eupheme.  The name Muses comes from the Latin word mens and the English word mind.  This denotes memory or reminder, and this is because the earliest poems weren’t written down they were just recited from memory.  The Muses have not always been known as having nine.  The original number of them and there names varies.  The first three were the Muses that worshipped on Mount Helicon they were known as Melete Muse of meditation, Mneme Muse of memory and finally Aoede Muse of song.  There were other variations before the Greeks finally established that there are nine muses.  Their names are
    Calliope Muse of epic poetry, Clio Muse of history, Euterpe Muse of lyric poetry, Melpomene Muse of tragedy, Terpsichore Muse of choral dance and song,
    Erato Muse of love poetry, Polyhymnia Muse of scared poetry, Urania Muse of Astronomy, Thalia Muse of comedy.  Not only does each of the Muses have a
    different art or science to preside over, they had several epithets, which usually referred to places where they had settled.  Mount Helicon is scared to
    the Muses.  A sacrifice to the Muses consists of water, milk or honey.



14.
Brittany Watson
September 8, 2004
Engl. 230
Assignment 1

Sarpedon

 Sarpedon was the mortal son of Zeus, king of the gods. There is confusion about who his mother was. Some texts say his mother was Laodamia, the daughter of Bellerophon. Other texts say his mother was Europa and that he had brothers named Minos and Rhadamanthys. Sarpedon had a cousin named Glaucus. Sarpedon and Glaucus were co-captains of the Lycian forces. They were both grandsons of the hero Bellerophon. They led one of the strongest attackes on the wall of the Greek camp. Sarpedon was a Trojan War hero and he was King of Lycia. During what would become his final battle, Sarpedon and Patroclus came face to face with one another. Sarpedon’s father, Zeus, was trying to decide if he should spare his son’s life or to leave it up to fate to decide that. Hera, the wife and sister of Zeus, convinces him not to interfere with fate, because doing so would cause the other gods to become extremely vengeful and save their own offspring as well. He agrees to let fate take its course, and in turn, his son Sarpedon is killed by Patroclus’ spear. Zeus is heartbroken by the death of his son, but he knew he had made the right decision in not interfering with the fight.
 There was a great amount of fighting over Sarpedon’s body. After the Greeks ran to strip Sarpedon of his armor, Zeus could no longer just sit back and watch. He called on Hermes, the messenger of the gods, for help. He did not want his son’s body to be humiliated and dragged through the streets. Hermes called on the twin gods, Hypnos (god of sleep) and Thanatos (god of death), for help. These winged creatures swept up Sarpedon’s body and carried it to his home land of Lycia, where a proper burial would take place. His body was cleansed and anointed with ambrosia. In his honor, a sanctuary was erected. This sanctuary was called a Sarpedoneum.



15.
Krystal Cotten
9/8/04
English 230
 

Odysseus

  While reading the Iliad, I concentrated on researching information on the character Odysseus. Although Odysseus is not a main character in the Iliad, his part portrays his character as a person and helps us to better understand his upcoming role in the Odyssey. As he is first introduced in book I of the Iliad, he is noted  “the most subtle and crafty of the Greeks”( Iliad 123). When his name is mentioned, it usually follows a descriptive adjective about his personality such as “trusty Odysseus”(Iliad 123), “versatile Odysseus”(Iliad 128), and “tactful Odysseus”(Iliad 131).
  Odysseus, also called Ulysses in Latin, was the ruler of the island kingdom of Ithica. His great-grandfather, Cephalus, once owned part of his land. Arcisius is Odysseus’ grandfather who bore Laertes, Odysseus’ father. Odysseus was one of the first suitors of Helen of Troy until Menelaus succeeded in winning her hand in marriage. Although Odysseus didn’t want to fight in the Trojan War, he fought more than heroically when he did fight. He was one of the most prominent Greek leaders in the Trojan War, respected for his dignity and respect for others. Odysseus was especially known for his intellect and eloquence used while speaking.
  In the Iliad, Odysseus was instrumental in advising Agamemnon and controlling the army. In the Odyssey, Odysseus was the main and central character. He was the hero of the Odyssey, fighting very daring and dangerous battles.  He wouldn’t ever retreat a battlefield in the presence of Trojans. He would fight to the death. He and Diomedes were noted for a nocturnal raid against the Trojans that bettered their ability to defeat them.
  Odysseus was the inventor of the Trojan horse, what is said to be the stratagem by which the Greeks were finally able to take over Troy. Some say he was one of the many who was in the horse, hiding. After taking Troy, Odysseus started home. His ten years of trials and tribulations on his way home are chronicled in the Odyssey. After returning home, Odysseus discovers his wife, Penelope, had been unfaithful the past twenty years and managed to kill all of her suitors with his bow.
  Some say Odysseus died of old age. Many say that his son, who was unaware of the matter, killed him and greatly lamented when he found out that he killed his father he had never known. Either way, Odysseus’ life was very important in the way history has developed from Ancient Greece. If it weren’t for Odysseus, the Trojan War would have turned out much differently.


16.
Kattie Hollen
Engl 230
8 September 2004
Diomedes

Diomedes is said to be one of the best Greek soldiers of all time.  He was born in Argos as the son of Tydeus and Deipyle.  He was the grandson of Adrastus and the husband to Aegialia.  His father and grandfather were two of the seven heroes from the Greek legend, Seven Against Thebes.  In the legend Tydeus and Adrastus fought along with four other men and Polynices to overthrow Polynices’ brother Eteocles for his rightful place as King of Thebes.  Unfortunately, the battle ended with the crown going to Creon and all but Adrastus were killed.  After this the sons of the seven heroes, including Diomedes, led the successful expedition of the Epigone.  The expedition was intended to avenge the deaths of their fathers and to rightfully restore the throne of Thebes to Polynices’ son, Thersander.  After the expedition, Diomedes succeeded Adrastus and became King of Argos.  After this, Diomedes decided to fight alongside the Greeks in the Trojan War.
Diomedes was a key asset to the Achaean army during the war.    During the war he became feared among the Trojan army because of his great strength against mortal and immortal opponents. One such incident was in his battle with Prince Aenas, the son of Aphrodite.  During the battle Diomedes badly injured the Prince while his mother watched from Mt. Olympus.  After seeing the extent of her son’s injuries, Aphrodite went to the battlefield and lifted the Prince in hopes of removing him from the war and saving him from death.  When Diomedes saw her, he attacked her leaving her with a wounded wrist.  Another opponent Diomedes faced in the war was Hector who was accompanied by the war-god Ares.  With the help of Hera and Athena, Diomedes was able to injure Ares with a spear and force the Trojan army back from the field.
In The Iliad Diomedes was correctly portrayed as a brave and successful soldier.  The narrative told stories of Diomedes’ experiences not only on the battlefront, but off as well.   The story mentioned the time he met Glaucus and the two exchanged weapons in the decision not to fight each other. Also, Book V is centered on his battle with the gods.  Diomedes’ role in the war was not as big as Agamemnon’s or Achilles’ and thus, he is not mentioned as frequently.
With the help of Diomedes, the Achaean army was able to withstand many battles during the Trojan War.  He was a brave soldier that was ruthless and unafraid to fight for Greece


17.
Quintasha Clovis
World Literature 230
September 8, 2004
 

    Hades

 Hades, son of Cronus whom swallowed him to prevent the prophecy that one of his offspring would grow to replace him on the throne and brother to Zeus and Poseidon, was the god of the underworld.  Zeus his brother was the god of the sky and the living.  He was the most powerful of the three. Poseidon was the god of the sea and the people who traveled it.  Now there was Hades who ruled the dead.  Hades was also known as Pluto the Roman God and sometimes called the invisible one or the Unseen.  Hades abducted Persephone to be his wife and rule the under world with him for a little while.  He had to get Zeus’ approval because she was not dead.  They lives in a palace in the underworld.  Hades attire includes a hat made by Cyclopes that helps him to appear invisible.  He also has a staff in which he uses to guide the dead to the underworld.  The underworld was only intended for the dead.  The Gods of Olympus never entered except for Hermes and Iris who were Hades messengers.  Hades rarely left his realm, but when he did he used his hat to make him invisible so he could do some observing.  He mainly withdrew himself from the under god’s and goddesses.  The underworld was an underground that was a home for spirits who died. The underworld lies deep beneath the earth.  There are very few entrances.  The passage to the underworld was supposedly one way only, through death.  The underworld existed so that the dead would have after life.  Hades would have to try and prevent people who died form leaving the underworld.  That was the most important thing that he had to do.  To help stop this from happening he was assisted by a three-headed dog.  The name of the dog was Cerebrus.  Since the rule was that once you entered the underworld you were not able to leave, very few people would visit Hades causing him to be alone most of the time.  Hades also had the role of a good counselor.  He would help the people who died with the transition from living on earth to living amongst the dead.  He thought them to be quiet and listen.  For what reason I do not know, because if you are dead why do you need to listen or be quiet.  The symbols of the Greek god Hades are the helmet or cap, the planet Pluto because it is do dark and cold, and the three-headed dog Cerebrus just to name a few.  Although he was the god of the underworld he was not mean and vicious like he is portrayed in today’s society.  He just was chosen to rule a place where life is none existent.


18.
Bracy Willson
5 September 2004
English 230
Glaucus
 Glaucus was a Trojan warrior in the book The Iliad who was known for his outspoken bravery and arrogant attitude.  He was introduced in to the story in the sixth book when he wandered off into no man’s land between the two armies that were fighting.  He ran into Diomedes, lord of the war cry, and was faced with the question of death.  Diomedes demanded that Glaucus tell him who he was and warned Glaucus that not even Dryas’ indestructible son Lycurgus lived long when he faced the deathless gods.  After Diomedes told the story of Lycurgus’ death, he challenged Glaucus once more.  Glaucus answered Diomedes very boldly and asked why Diomedes had asked about his birth, but with no hesitation Glaucus began to tell the story of his magnificent birth.  Glaucus, son of Hippolochus and Tydeus’ son Diomedes, had a very interesting way of telling this story. He began in the city Corinth, where Sisyphus, had a son named Glaucus who sired the brave Bellerophon, a man known to have no faults.  Proetus’ wife, Antea lusted for young Bellerophon but could never win him over so she ordered Proetus to kill young Bellerophon, claiming that he was bent on dragging her down with him in lust even though she resisted him.  The King of Argos, Proetus, called upon his death.  Young Bellerophon survived the challenges and earned the respect of Antea’s father.  He and Antea were married and gave birth to Isander, Hippolochus, and Laodamia.  Hippolochus sired Glaucus and sent him off to Troy to be the best and the bravest.  His father told him to “never disgrace the generation of your fathers” because of their reputation as the bravest champions born in Corinth.  Then after Glaucus told his story, Diomedes’ spirits lifted as he realized that their grandfathers were friends. They had given each other gifts of friendship so now Diomedes insisted that they, too, be friends and so they traded armor and decided not to fight each other.  Ignorantly, Glaucus traded his gold armor for bronze with Diomedes.  His gold was worth about 100 oxen and the bronze was worth only nine.  Glaucus went on to be a great warrior in the Trojan war and when Sarpedon, Glaucus’ cousin, fell to his death, Glaucus rallied the Trojan army around his dead body.

Homer.  “The Iliad.” Eds. Lawall, Sara and Maynard Mack. The Norton Anthology of
 World Literature.  New York: W.W.Norton&Company, 2002.


19.
Joseph Maranto

Teucer

             Teucer was a Greek mortal who fought in the Trojan War.  His father was
             Telamon, his mother was Hesione, and his half brother was Ajax the Great.
             Unlike his half brother, Ajax, who fought with a sword, and brute strength,
             Teucer fought with a bow and arrow.  He is said to be the most famous archer
             of the Trojan War and a great defender of the Greek camp.
             King Agamemnon praised Teucer for killing many Trojans in the war.  Agamemnon
             placed Teucer first after only himself.  This place was usually offered to
             warriors on the front line showing their bravery such as Achilles and Ajax.
             Agamemnon sees Teucer as a vital key in his plan to kill every male Trojan.
             Teucer lives through the killing during the war.  He is sidelined only after
             Hector slings a rock at him and breaks his bowstring.  This blow from the rock
             sent Teucer to his knees.
             After the death of Achilles, a dispute arose between Odysseus and Teucer’s
             brother Ajax.  They competed for the armor of Achilles.  Only after hearing a
             speech from both of the men, the Greek Assembly awards Odysseus the armor.
             This act sent Ajax into a mad rage.  He killed the herd of cattle, and then
             killed himself.
             After the war was over, Teucer went back to his home to see his father.  After
             hearing the story of Ajax, Telamon banished Teucer from the land of his
             mother.  Teucer was banished because his father thought he was responsible for
             his brother’s death, and that he did not avenge his brother’s death.  He was
             also ashamed of the fact the Teucer fought with the bow and arrow, and not
             with the sword.  He thought this undermined the heroic code.
             Teucer went to Cyprus after being banished from his homeland.  When he
             arrived, Cyprus was under attack by a group of savages no longer under the
             control of the Trojans.  He realized he wanted to help the Cypriots, and
             gathered together a few followers.  After sharing his military knowledge with
             his men, they made the barbarians retreat, and finally leave the island.
             Because of his heroic efforts, the Cypriots named offered him the throne.  He
             named it Salamis, and made it his new hometown.


20.
Nathan Hills
September 7, 2004
English 230
8:00-8:50 MWF
The Best Chariot Driver

 Nestor’s place in the Iliad is important because he is a wise counselor and because he motivates the plot. Some critics see him as a ridiculous figure, and it cannot be denied that he is at times a comic figure; but Nestor’s digressive tales frequently motivate a character to perform some necessary action or reveal relevant cultural ideas. His tales are usually served as examples for present situations.
The modern reader may see Nestor as talkative and unnecessary, or as a useless extra to the Achaian army; but the Greeks did not view him as such. He is the oldest man among the Achaians, and the Greeks saw advantages in old age. They believed that an elder man knew more, and here, the Achaians listen to the wisdom that old Nestor has gained through age. Consequently, Nestor’s tales and advice serve to challenge younger men to live up to heroic ideals that he himself upheld in the past.
Nestor challenges the Achaians to fight Hektor by saying to them that if he were younger, he would fight Hektor. To prove his former ability, he tells the story of his fight with Ereuthalion in the Pylian war, a circumstance similar to the present war. The tale prompts nine warriors to “stand forth” to fight Hektor. Here, again, the wisdom of Nestor is useful in that he has the men draw lots. The disorder caused by Hektor’s challenge has become ordered through Nestor’s example.
Nestor’s stories always have a purpose, and the story he tells Patroklos is intended to bring Achilles back into the war. It is a story of disorder brought about by Herakles and restored by Nestor’s efforts. The tale points out that the Achaians need a leader and that Achilles should return to battle to save the Achaians. While Nestor is unsuccessful in bringing Achilles back into the war, he convinces Patroklos that Achilles’ Myrmidon troops are necessary for the Achaians’ success.
However, Homer uses Nestor as more than a counselor, and he uses Nestor’s tales as more than a means to encourage the warriors to action. Nestor’s tales enrich the epic with stories of the past that connect the past to the present and reveal a connection of Greek life and therefore Greek literature. There are links to the Odyssey and the Iliad. Nestor becomes the transmitter of memory, which is critical for the immortality of their heroes.
In all of Nestor’s speeches, his purpose is to motivate an individual or a group to action. He first attempts to settle the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon. Second, he advises the Achaians to build a wall, and afterward, to bury their dead. Third, he suggests the spy mission. Fourth, he advises Agamemnon to send goodwill ambassadors to Achilles with gifts. And fifth, he inspires Patroklos to persuade Achilles to return to battle. He proves to be a wise counselor, and most of those whom he counsels recognize his wisdom.
During the funeral games, Achilles presents a gift to Nestor in respect for his old age. In turn, Nestor prays that Achilles enjoys a similar happiness. One critic suggests that through his respect for Nestor, Achilles is later able to recognize the value of Priam, Hektor’s father. Likewise, the early ability of Nestor seems to comparable Achilles’ ability.  Nestor’s ability to soothe hard feelings, to use praise as a means for motivation, and to make tactful suggestions to a king are all acquired through experience. Only Odysseus equals Nestor in his ability to bring order out of disorder.


21.
Arceneaux, Bridget
             English 230
             Sept. 8, 2004

                                                 Aphrodite the Goddess
                 Aphrodite was a goddess in the book the Illiad. She was in rivalry with the
             Greek goddess Athena. Aphrodite was the Trojan supporter, her father was Zeus
             and Dione her mother. She was presented with the golden apple by Paris for the
             exchange of Helens love. She struggles with Hera and Athena in this war while
             she took the side of Paris and Her son. Diomedes wounds her during this war
             and fight. Paris judged Aphrodite the fairest over Hera and after her daughter
             Hebe was replaced as a cupbearer to the gods by a young boy that is a Trojan.
             Aphrodite supports Paris’s judgement while she sided with the Trojans.
             Although she was insignificant on the battlefield, she was successful in
             convincing Ares, her lover and the god of war to help the Trojans.
                 Over the years artists have been amazed by the beauty and serenity of
             Aphrodite, causing various representations of the guises and poses. She is
             known as the Greek goddess of love, desire, beauty, fertility, the sea, and
             vegetation. Aphrodite has many other mythological significants about her cause
             the various artists to be astounded. Also many of the artists have tried to
             depict various women as Aphrodite. One way the she has impacted so many of the
             artists is that has been her birth by the sea, they depict not only in her
             wonderful detail but also her surroundings with many influences to the work.
             Aphrodite’s father is Zeus the supreme god and king of Olympus. Her siblings
             include Athena her sister, and Ares her brother. Aphrodite also has a son,
             Aeneas. In the story Aphrodite intervenes a battle to save her son Aeneas from
             Diomedes, who previously wounded her and was now on the verge of killing
             Aeneas. Aphrodite’s birth date, true age, and date of death are all
             undetermined. The idea of the goddess is about 25 to 50 thousand years old.
 
 
 


22.
William Snee
9/07/04
English 230

Menelaus
 

 Menelaus is the son of Atreus of Mycenae.  His brother is Agamemnon, the ruler of the Greeks during the Trojan War.  Menelaus was born a prince, but went into exile at an early age because his Uncle Thyestes first son Aegisthus killed Atreus and gave the throne to his father.  Atreus lost his life because he tried to kill Thyestes under false pretenses.
 With their uncle ruling, Menelaus and Agamemnon went into exile, living with King Polyphides I of Sicyon, then they stayed with King Oeneus II of Calydon.  After growing older, the brothers decided to overthrow their uncle and re-claim the throne.  King Tyndareus of Sparta helped them drive Thyestes I away to an island off the southern coast of the Peloponnesus called Cythera.
 Once in power, the brothers claimed wives.  Menelaus married Helen and received the kingdom of Sparta from her father, Tyndareus, after he passed away.  When Menelaus and Helen were married, Tyndareus made Helen’s suitors each take an oath to defend and protect the man who Helen chose as her husband.
 After ten years of marriage, Menelaus welcomed Paris, the prince of Troy, into his palace.  Aphrodite, goddess of Love, had promised Helen to Paris and then made Helen fall in love with him.  Several days passed and then Menelaus had to attend the funeral of his mother’s father in Crete.  During his absence, Paris and Helen became lovers.  Helen and Paris loaded most of the treasures of Sparta onto a ship a sailed away to Troy, abandoning her daughter Hermione who was only nine years old.
 Menelaus returned to find that Helen had left with Paris.  Menelaus and his brother Agamemnon raised an army to take Helen back by force if necessary.  The army was also put together by Helen’s suitors following through with the oath that they had taken before Tyndareus died.   Unfavorable winds kept the Greek army from sailing, but Menelaus convinced Agamemnon to kill his own daughter in order to change the winds.  After the death of Agamemnon’s daughter, the army was able to sail to Troy.  They fought for ten years after Paris refused to give up Helen.  In the tenth year, Menelaus met Paris on the battle field.  A truce would be formed; the two men would fight to the death, the victor claiming Helen as his wife.  Menelaus almost killed Paris, but Aphrodite interfered and saved Paris.  The truce was not held and fighting erupted again.  Menelaus and many other soldiers entered into Troy hidden in
side of a giant wooden horse.  After entering the city, Menelaus found Helen married to Deiphobus I, Paris had died.  Menelaus tortured Deiphobus to death, cutting him into pieces, and then took Helen back to the ships to sail home to Sparta.

Reference

Parada, Carlos. 1997. http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Menelaus.html



23.
Katherine LeJeune
MWF 8:00 AM
 
 

Patroclus was the son of Menoetius, and best friend of Achilles.  Patroclus killed Clysonymus and had to flee so that he would not get in trouble.  Patroclus and his father went to live with Achilles and his father Peleus.  Patroclus helped the Greeks in the Trojan War.  When Achilles would not fight because of Agamemnon stealing his "prize" Patroclus took his armor and went fight in his place.  While Patroclus was fighting he was killed by Hector, the Trojan Prince and brother of Paris, with help from Apollo.  After Achilles received the news of Patroclus' death he decided not to rest until he had killed Hector.  After he killed Hector Achilles did not want to bury Patroclus' body but he got a sign from Patroclus to give him a proper burial.  The proper burial consisted of sacrificing horses, dogs, and twelve Trojan captives and then he was burned and put in an golden urn and then the games began.  Achilles organized an Olympic competition in honor of his friend Patroclus.  These games consisted of boxing, javelin throw, wrestling, a foot race. an archery contest, and also a duel.


24.
Erica Crochet
September 8, 2004
English 230 Assignment 1

Ares

 Ares is the Greek god of war born to Zeus and Hera.  His symbol is the spear.  It is said he carried and bloodstained spear and his throne was covered in skin.  His worship began in Thracia a region known for fierce people.  He has many brothers and sister but his favorite is Eris.  She is the goddess of strife and is always by his side.  Ares has two sons Deimos and Phobos, which, stay with him as well.  Ares is very tall and handsome but also very vain whereas Hephaestus his brother is kind. In the Iliad Ares is on the side of the Trojans along with Aphrodite.
Ares rode into battle with his two horses Flame and Terror pulling his chariot   When Ares would hear the sound of battle he would become very happy and a smile would cross his face.   He would then put his armor on and rush into battle.  He did not really care who won or lost as long as blood was shed. Hades the god of the underworld sometimes accompanied Ares into battle. Each time Ares was wounded he would go to Mt. Olympus and his father Zeus would heal him.  Seeing his son carry on this way angered Zeus. Ares brother, Herakles, killed Kyknos another one of Ares sons.  Zeus loved Herakles and would not let Ares harm him even though he killed his son.
Most other gods despised Ares but Aphrodite loved him.  In battle one day Pallas Athene knocked Ares senseless and Aphrodite helped him off the battlefield.  Ares also helped Aphrodite defend her son Aineias from certain death.  It is also said that Ares and Aphrodite were more than friends even though she was married.  The twins Phobos and Deimos were said to be hers along with a goddess also.  Through all of this Ares was never married though he fathered many children.


 25.
Zuly Bayer
9-7-04
Engl 230- Hecuba
 There is controversy about who is Hecubas father. Some say her father was Dymas, king of Phrygia while some believe that she was the daughter of the Sangarius River, and finally still others believe that she was the daughter of Cisseus, king of Thrace. Most websites believe that Hecuba is the daughter of Dymas and a Trojan queen.
 Her husband was King Priam of troy and they had 50 children including Hector and Paris. It is also said that Hecuba had a son with the god Apollo. His name was Troilius.
 According to http://www.stanford.edu/~plomio/hecuba.html “She blames the fall of Troy on Paris, and therefore states "by my torches you are burning.”” and “When Paris left Troy to find Helen, Hecuba and Cassandra both tried to convince him to stay. But, once Helen was inside Trojan walls, Hecuba, along with Priam, is said to have defended Helen,. Her defense of Helen, however, may have been the result of national pride instead of any personal feelings toward Helen. From the walls of Troy, Hecuba watched as the war raged on and many of her sons were killed. When the war was drawing to a close, Hecuba caught sight of Priam struggling into his armor. Hecuba persuaded Priam to stay with her and their daughters at the altar. Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) slew both Polites and Priam in plain sight of Hecuba. In the Aeneid, Aeneas tells Dido of Priam and Hecuba's fates in the fall of Troy. After the war, Hecuba was given to Odysseus.”
 Paris, Hecubas son, was killed by Achilles. Paris is the cause of the Trojan war because he kidnapped Helen. Hecubas husband, King Priam was killed by Achilles' son, Neoptolemus.
 

 After the fall of Troy, Hecuba was captured and made a slave by the Achaeans. There are different versions of Hecubas death. The three scenarios behind her death are that one, she was stoned by the Greeks because they were angry about her killing Polymer, second, she jumped overboard off Odysseus’ ship, and third, she was turned into a dog.


26.
Jessica L. Galloway
English 230-01
 

Agamemnon: King of the Argives

 According to multiple sources Agamemnon, king or the Argives, seems to be more of a character in epic poems and plays than a historical figure.  Although repeated searches kept identifying Agamemnon as a character in The Iliad and Aeschelus, facts and historical theories were eventually discovered in brief paragraphs throughout the internet world reinforcing the idea of his realistic existence.
 Depending on which text is referred to Agamemnon was king of Mycenae or Argos.  In most accounts, regardless of geographic location, he was a member of the house of Atreus, his father, with his brother Menelaus.  Agamemnon gained his fame when he was assigned the siege on Troy to bring back Menelaus’ wife, Helen.  According to Greek mythology, the winds were not favorable for this voyage.  He was advised to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigenia, to the goddess, Artemis.  Supposedly this sacrifice would appease Artemis and she would forgive Agamemnon for claiming to be a better hunter than her in turn creating an ideal atmosphere for sailing.  Agamemnon is portrayed as being a very pompous leader.  This is especially exemplified in The Iliad when he angered Achilles before the attack on Troy.
Agamemnon returned home at the end of the Trojan War with the daughter of King Priam of Troy as his mistress.  While he was away his wife, Clytemnestra, became a lover to his cousin, Aegisthus.  Upon his return Clytemnestra and Aegisthus plotted his murder mainly to avenge the sacrifice of her daughter.  After Agamemnon’s death his son, Orestes, and possibly his other daughter, Electra, killed the people responsible for his death.
There are many variations of the story of Agamemnon’s life.  Truth and myth seem to be closely linked.  Some accounts seem to suggest that Agamemnon never made it home to Mycenae.  Others seem to imply that Iphigenia was never sacrificed, and that Artemis replaced her with a deer.  However, that would confuse the reason for Clytemnestra’s betrayal of Agamemnon.  It appears that despite the facts or lack of them, the story is still as entertaining as any soap opera on television.

http://www.btinternet.com/~argyros.argyrou/Famtree.htm


27.
Jennifer Green
             September 8, 2004
             English 230 Assignment 1
 

                                               Thetis

                 Thetis is an important character in the book the Iliad. Thetis parents were
             named Nerus and Doris. Nerus and Doris had fifty daughters, and these
             daughters were called the Nereids, or the daughters of Nerus. Thetis was not a
             mortal she was a sea nymph and her father was a god of the sea. Thetis was
             given to a mortal man, for his undying devotion to the gods on Olympus, named
             Peleus. Together they had a son named Achilles, who will later become a very
             important role in the Trojan War. Later on Thetis leaves Peleus and go back to
             live with her father in the Aegean Sea. The fate of Achilles was known only by
             his mother. He could either return to his father or die happy yet forgotten or
             he could die at troy and be remembered forever as a hero.
                 She first appears in the Iliad when her son Achilles calls for her to tell
             her about his troubles with Agamemnon. Her son asks her to let Troy win so his
             pride will be saved. Thetis goes to Zeus and begs for him to grant her sons
             request. Zeus agrees and the battle continues. To protect her son in battle,
             Thetis provided Achilles with armor made by Hephaestus, the smith of the gods.
             But during the war at Troy, Achilles was angered by Agamemnon, he refused to
             fight. Instead, he gave his armor to his friend Patroclus. Patroclus was
             killed as his press the attack to the walls of Ilion. The most brutal fighting
             of the war was for the armor of Achilles and the body of Patroclus. The
             disgrace to his friend’s body and the theft of his armor brought Achilles into
             battle, but not before Thetis could persuade Hephaestus to forge new armor for
             her, soon to be immortalized, son. When Achilles strode into battle with his
             new armor, the Trojans fled in terror. It was obvious that he was protected by
             the gods and the background of his lineage all thanks to his mother Thetis.
             After Achilles had his revenge for Patroclus, his mother Thetis and her
             sisters all mourned openly and cast a mist over the body of Patroclus.



28.
Courtney Tansil
September 7, 2004
English 230 assignment 1

In the Iliad, Cassandra was the most beautiful daughter out of twelve. Her parents are Queen Hecuba and King Priam of Troy. Cassandra means crying wolf or she who entangles men.  She was also known as Alexandra the helper of men. Cassandra was like the sun; she caught the eye of her god. The god that was captivated by her beauty was Apollo.
 Apollo is the most handsome god there was. He is the god of the sun and he is the son of Zeus.  Apollo liked Cassandra and wanted her intimately. So, he then told her if you will sleep with me then I will give you a prophecy. She agreed.  So, he gave her the prophecy of being able to tell the future. When she got this she would be able to tell everything. But, the only thing was now that she had the prophecy she had to have sex with him. She told him no and Apollo said that he was going to add something to the prophecy. Apollo kissed her and added that when she would talk everything would be true but no one would believe what she was saying.  She liked Apollo as a teacher just not as a lover.
 When Cassandra would tell her people, the Trojans, about their future’ they thought she was crazy.  This was only because of what Apollo had done to her. The biggest thing that she told was about the war. She had went to her brother Paris and told him not to go to Greece. She told him that they would lose the war. Also, she mentioned that there was going to be a wooden horse that they would think was not armed. She told him that and he did not believe her at all. While they were in Greece, the wooden horse came out filled with fighting armed soldiers. The surprise attack cost the Trojans the war.
 At this point Cassandra was sent to Mycenae and taken captive. She was now a concubine of the Greek King Agamemnon. She was also a slave for him. Clytemnestra, Agamemnon’s wife, and Aegisthus killed Cassandra and Agamemnon. It was said that Clytemnestra killed him because he had an affair with Aegisthus. After Cassandra died people did believe that she was telling the truth and they began to respect her. In Laconia she is known as Alexandra.



29.
Matthew Huckabee
September 8, 2004
English 230-01
Assignment 1

 One of the main characters in the Iliad is Paris.  Paris makes some unwise decisions that affect everyone around him.  Paris puts his blind trust in the power of love over the power of strength and bravery.

 Paris is the son of Priam, who is the son of Laomedon, descendent of Tros, and Dardanus, the son of Zeus.  Paris’ parents, Priam and Hecuba, are the king and queen of the mighty city of Troy.  Upon Paris’ birth, Hecuba dreamed that he would bring the destruction of Troy.  Priam and Hecuba ordered Agelaus to take Paris away so Agelaus raised him as his own son away from Priam’s kingdom.  After many years, Paris returned to Troy and took his place in Troy with his family.  Among his many siblings, Paris is the brother of man-killing Hector.  The Trojans hail Hector for his bravery and agility on the battlefield.  Hector is the perfect hero, and he fights alongside his fellow Trojans in battle.  The Acheans, or Greeks, despise Paris because he stole Helen away from Menelaus while he was a guest at Menelaus’ palace.  “Menelaus entertained him for nine days, but then he had to leave for Crete in order to attend the funeral of his grandfather Catreus […] Menelaus then set sail, after having ordered Helen to furnish the guests with all they required, which she did in all details (Parada).”  Helen furnished Paris with much more than Menelaus thought, and she ended up secretly falling in love and going back to Troy with Paris.

 Paris did not think about anyone but himself, and in the process of his blind show of love to Helen, he started the Trojan War.  Upon bringing Helen back to Troy, Paris enraged Menelaus and battered his honor.  Hector disapproved of Paris’ actions from the beginning but never forced him to return Helen to Menelaus.  However, all of the other Trojans received Helen as a prize and thought it was worthwhile to fight for her.  When Menelaus and Agamemnon, Menelaus’ brother, arrived in Troy, they agreed to settle the war with a duel between Paris and Menelaus.  Paris, who was more concerned with love than the Trojan War, broke the agreement and the Achaeans attacked Troy with full force.  “Paris regarded his own judgment quite fit.  For love, he reasoned, was greater than power or a brave heart (Parada).”

 Paris condemned the lives of thousands of innocent Trojans when he took Helen from Sparta.  He offended and enraged the Greek kings, and he was unprepared for the consequences that resulted.  He thought the power of love could save him from the strength and bravery of the deadly Achaeans.

Works Cited
Parada, Carlos. Greek Mythology Link. <http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML /Paris.html>.



30. Jared Moore
English 230-01
Assignment #1
September 7, 2004

 Hephaestus was one of many children born to the Olympian gods Zeus and Hera.  It is believed, however, that Zeus is not the actual father of Hephaestus.  The idea behind this is that Hera was upset with Zeus for having an affair so she conceived Hephaestus by herself.  Hephaestus was the god of fire and a skilled smith during the Bronze Age.  He was the only god to be physically ugly and either by birth or by incident he became lame.  There are two accounts explaining how he became lame.  The first is that Hera was unhappy that she birthed an ugly child so she threw him off of Mount Olympus. Hephaestus fell for an entire day before falling into the sea and being rescued by nymphs.  He was taken to a nearby island called Lemnos where he was taken care of by the people there.  In retaliation for Hera’s action, Hephaestus crafted a special throne, which was delivered to Mount Olympus.  When she was seated in the throne she became imprisoned by it.  It was Dionysus who was responsible for her release by intoxicating Hephaestus and carrying him back to Mount Olympus.  Hephaestus released Hera after he was given Aphrodite to be his wife.  The second of the stories is that Zeus and Hera became entangled in an argument during which Hephaestus took the side of Hera.  Zeus, being unhappy about this, threw Hephaestus off of Mount Olympus. He fell for nine days before landing on the island Lemnos.  In either account, Hephaestus, made Lemnos his home on which he built a palace and his trade shop.  He used the fire from volcanoes as the source for his metal work.  He was responsible for crafting many unique pieces of metalwork.  One of these pieces was described in great detail in Homer’s The Iliad.  During the war between the Trojans and the Achaeans, Achilles, a great soldier for the Achaeans, gave his armor to his best friend Patroclus.  Later in the war Patroclus was killed and the Trojans confiscated Achilles’ armor.  It was Hephaestus, by persuasion of Thetis, Achilles’ mother, who crafted Achilles an incredible set of armor.     Hephaestus agreed to craft Achilles’ this set of armor because Thetis helped him when he was thrown from Mount Olympus.  Without this armor Achilles would not have been able to return to battle.  Armor during this time could be very expensive.  Hephaestus also helped Achilles when the river god Axius tried to kill him.  Hephaestus dried up Axius’ rivers with a great fire. There are many myths surrounding the life of Hephaestus but his creations, especially Achilles’ armor helped change the outcome of the war between the Trojans and the Achaeans.



31.
Anna Smith
English 230 -Assignment 1
MWF 8:00-8:50
September 8,2004
w0213499

POSEIDON
 
 

Poseidon is a Greek God.  Poseidon is the fifth of six children to Cronus and Rhea.  His brothers and sisters are Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Zeus. Poseidon is the god of the seas and was a very popular god.  He controlled the earthquakes from his domain in the sea.  Poseidon was known as "the Earth Shaker."  He was known in mythology as an angry god and as a fighter.
In addition to him being known as a fighter, he was also known as a lover.  Poseidon had five lovers, that we know of.  One of the five was Aethra, who was a mortal woman that was the mother of the legendary Greek hero Theseus: and it was said that Poseidon was the father.  Another one of Poseidon's lovers was Amphitrite, who caught his eye, and it was said that she was Poseidon's wife.  Demeter was another lover to Poseidon.  She transformed herself into a mare to avoid Poseidon's advances.  In finding this out, Poseidon turned himself into a stallion and they united in this way.  Poseidon had an affair with Medusa.  In legend, Medusa was a very beautiful female, who made Poseidon fall for her and he ravished her in the temple of Athena.  In ding this, Medusa was punished.  The last of Poseidon's lovers, that we know of, who was a mortal, named Tyro.  He wanted to be with her so he disguised himself as a river, they had an affair, and this resulted in the birth of twins, Neleus and Pelias.
Every god has a symbol which represents them.  Poseidon's symbols are the trident, the horse, and the bull.
Poseidon was known as Neptune in Roman mythology.
 
 



32. Domonique Washington
English 230
MWF 8am
Writing Assignment
Iliad

Bellerophon

In the Iliad by Homer there are many characters that may or may not be considered major depending on the viewpoint of the reader.  While the characters may not be considered major finding information on the names mentioned in each book of the novel is.  The character chosen by me in terms of reaching characters in the Iliad was that of Bellerophon.
Bellerophon’s character in the novel did not play a “major part” as did others such as Zeus, Achilles, or Hector, but his character was significant in the small portion it had in the story.  According to research Bellerophon is from Corinth and is the son of King Glaucus and Eurymede, and grandson of Sisyphus.    Bellerophon was said to be adventurous as a child and due to his ambitious self-motivated personality he set out for great adventure.  During his travel for adventure he meet and became friends with Proteus.  Though Proteus seemed like a good friend he was indeed jealous of Bellerophon and sought out to cause his death.    While seeking adventure Bellerophon heard of a monster that was terrorizing the city of Lycia and wrote to Proteus concerning this matter.  Due to the envy by Proteus he immediately consulted his father in law and requested that Bellerophon be killed.  The Kind of Lycia did not think it was fair to kill him so instead he sent Bellerophon on what he believed to be a battle that will end his life.  Receiving help from Polyendus and capturing Pegasus by following  through with the help of the gods on how to kill Chimera, Bellerophon defeated the monster.  To the surprise of the king who never believed Bellerophon could live after fighting  a monster with the hed of a lion and tail of a dragon, some other form of punishment had to be done.  Upon completion with the battle of the monster Bellerophon became famous and received great gifts one of them being the daughter of King Iobates.  Because he was loved , had defeated the monster, and received a wife with the help of his steed Pegasus Bellerophon became over confident.  His over confidence made him show off his glory by acting as if he was undefeatable and had the powers of the god.  This act caused him to be pitied amongst the gods and in return he lost his steed and fame.
Pride is said to be the downfall of many great people and in fact was the downfall of a hero, Bellerophon.  Due to the over zealous act of pride a hero was left to feel alone and in constant search for that which could have been his glory.



33.
LeRoyce Smith
Sept. 8, 2004
Aeneas
 

 Aeneas was born from the mortal union of Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite.  Aeneas was conceived when Aphrodite came to Anchises in the form of a beautiful maiden, saying that she was the mortal daughter of Otreus.  Anchises was taken by desire and made love with Aphrodite, who later revealed her true identity. Anchises feared that the gods would destroy him for sleeping with a goddess, but Aphrodite assured him that he had great favor with the gods. Aphrodite also made Anchises promise that he would say their child was the offspring of a nymph, who Aphrodite hope would rear the child until he would be restored to his father.  Anchises was killed because he had consumed too much wine, and told his friends that he was the lover of the goddess, which caused him to be struck by Zeus. During the Trojan War, Aeneas had been driven from Mount Ida by Achilles.   During the Trojan War, Aeneas was also wounded by Diomedes.  When Aeneas was wounded he could have died if his mother Aphrodite had not come to his rescue.  Aphrodite, who also had been wounded by Diomedes , would have died if  Apollo would not have taken over.  Once Apollo had taken over, Aeneas was removed from the battle to the temple Pergamus.  At the temple, Artemis healed Aeneas and made him even stronger.  A phantom of Aeneas appeared until the real Aeneas was able to rejoin in the fighting.  There is a lot of uncertainty about Aeneas death.  Many people believe Aeneas disappeared during a battle against the army of Mezentius.  However, many people believe that he died in Thrace without ever reaching Italy.  Another belief of Aeneas death is that Aphrodite asked Zeus to make Aeneas immortal. As a result Zeus granted Aphrodite’s request and all of Aeneas’s mortal body parts was washed always by the river god Numicius. Aeneas was later made a god and was worshipped under the name of Indiges.


Athena, Goddess of Wisdom was the character I was assigned to research.  She was the daughter of Zeus and Métis.  She was one of nine children of the Olympian God Zeus.  Her birthplace is considered to be from the fore-head of her father.  This is said to be because of Zeus eating his wife, Metis, while pregnant with Athena.  Athena was born fully armed with a helmet on her head and a shield in her hand.
Athena was also referred to as the ultimate career woman, goddess of war, goddess of craftsmanship, goddess of strategy, and was the protector of the concept of cities.  She is identified often as grey-eyed or flashing-eyed Athena.  Her epithets grey-eyed comes from the underneath of the olive tree’s leaf because it is grey.   Because Athena accidentally killed Pallas, daughter of Triton, the sea god, she is sometimes known as Pallas Athena.  She was accidentally killed during the battle of the Olympians and Gigantes.
     Her symbols were the olive tree and the Owl.  The olive tree was symbolic from the gift offered by Athena for the affections of the Greeks.  She competed with her uncle Poseidon, a sea god, for the affections.  His gift was a horse.  The olive tree was the chosen gift because it provided shade, oil, and olives.  Because the Greeks preferred her gift they named the city Athens after her.  The symbolic animal of Athena, the owl, was related to the realm of the dead.  This animal also signifies watchfulness and wisdom.
Some of Athena’s strengths are rational, intelligent, and a powerful defender in war but also a potent peacemaker.  Some of her weaknesses are reason rules her, and she is not usually emotional or compassionate.
Her best known and best preserved temple was the Parthenon.  This temple was known as the temple of the virgin because she was one of three virgin Olympian Goddess.  This temple is also considered to be the most perfect building ever built.