Patterns of Development
Patterns of development help us sort out information
and shape paragraphs or essays. They can help organize an outline, or depending
on the purpose they can determine the form that a paper will take. Remember
that most paper will use a combination of methods, working together in
function of each other.
Given the topic "environmental issues," these are
some examples of how the methods can help limiting the topic, developing
a thesis statement, and writing an outline.
1. Narration means to tell a story: The
history of the Love Canal
A narration deals with people, places, events,
2. Description means to tell what something
Describe the damage done by pollution to a river,
lake, forest, etc. A good description will revolve around a "dominant impression."
3. Illustration with examples means that
a generalization is supported by specific instances.
Food industries do not encourage consumers to
produce less litter.
4. Definition means to explain what something
Define "ozone layer"
5. Comparison means to identify the ways
in which two "different" items are similar. Contrast means to identify
the ways in which two "similar" items are different. This means that there
is no purpose in comparing or contrasting two items that do not share some
common characteristic (apples and books).
Compare the environmental advantages of paper
bags as opposed to plastic bags
6. Classification means to sort items in
order to group together those with similar characteristics and to distinguish
them from those with different characteristics.
Provide examples of how we can reduce waste by
reducing, reusing, recycling.
7. Causal analysis means to find the reasons
that produced a certain result or to identify the results produced by a
Effects of acid rain on vegetation
8. Argumentation means to provide enough
reasons and proof to convince the reader that a certain opinion is valid.
Industries do not receive enough incentives to
9. Process analysis means to explain how
to do something.
How to start a compost pile.
Combining different methods: "Identifying plastic
as a source of pollution"
How plastic was developed (narration/process)
Definition/description of plastic
Different kinds of plastic (classification/illustration)
Consequences of the use of plastic (effects)
Alternative solutions offered (argumentation/comparison)
1. Narration: Baking and sharing Christmas
cookies is my favorite holiday tradition.
2. Description: The table at
my grandmother's Thanksgiving dinner is covered with delicious, great smelling,
and colorful holiday dishes.
3. Exemplification: Because
they cannot easily prepare their own food, many college students who live
in the dorms are on a diet of fast food, junk food, or snacks.
4. Definition: A pizza is a flat bread, which
may be covered with tomato sauce, cheeses, and a variety of toppings.
5. Comparison: Real Italian food,
the kind that is eaten in Italy, is very different from American Italian
6. Classification: Although traditionally
pizza is an Italian dish, Greek pizza, Mexican pizza, and Hawaiian
are becoming increasingly popular.
7. Cause and effect: Italian food in Italy
is very different from American Italian food because of regional
variations and because of availability of ingredients.
8. Process: Baking bread is a process which
consists of three main steps: kneading, shaping, and baking.